Flashcards in Lecture 6 Information Processing Models Deck (48):
Why is information processing better in older children?
-Working memory capacity
-Role of existing knowledge
What is the information processing model?
Based on a computer metaphor, view cognitive change in terms of:
-increased capacity of WM
-more efficientinhibition and execution of processing, ------more auto processing
How do children understand a word?
Sensory input of an auditory trace. If recognized will be sent for further processing and put in WM. If important it will be rehearsed and understood and enter LTM. Later it can be retrieved from LTM to help understand other words.
When information is in sensory memory it is lost in ___ seconds. When it is in STM / WM it is lost in____ sec. If you get ________ while trying to get info into a rehearsal pattern it disappears faster.
10 - 15
Is memory present at birth?
Maybe but weak.
1) habituation/ dishabituation evidence.
2) classical conditioning evidence
_________ show there are memory traces for at least a few seconds.
Describe the classical conditioning evidence for memory:
If you take 1 and 2 day old babies and stroke forehead prior to giving them sugar water after a while they will make a suck response when their forehead is stroked. This is evidence of tiny memory early on.
What is the evidence that memory improves with age?
1) Mobile studies
2) Reactivation experiences
The results from mobile studies show:
2 month olds remember for ____
3 month olds remember for ____
6 month olds remember for ____
Describe reactivation experiences:
If a baby is brought back right when they are likely to forget and the mobile is jiggled (to remind them it can) but they are not retrained, they are not the one jiggling it, this will remind the baby for another week. It is important that the baby isn't lying in the same position as this could extinguish training.
Short term memory in older children improves in 3 ways:
What mechanism cause older children to have better short term memory?
Neural development and experience
Describe the mechanism of neural development:
Pruning of synapses increases efficiency. Myelination insulates and eases the passing of signals increasing speed and efficiency.
Describe the mechanism of experience:
Learning how to think and what has meaning. It is easier to recognize something that you recognize rather than something completely foreign. Allows for automaticity.
Elementary kids with automaticity ________ faster. Automaticity in naming _________ results in more fluent reading by __________. Once something is you just have to ________ info not process it.
letters and objects
By age 12 children perform adult like in _____, _____, and ______ working memory. At age 2 children are only able to repeat ____ pieces of information.
digit span, letter span and word span
1 or 2
The ability to assess your own knowledge. Know whether or not you understand something. Develops slowly through life.
What is executive function used for?
-self monitoring (making sure to pay attention)
-planning/ strategizing (asking good questions)
- self regulation (what will help you most)
People who engage better in _________ processes you will do better in school and life.
What is the developmental course of metacognition ability?
Huge leap b/w ages 4 and 7. Prior to age 4 kids think they know everything and don't know what they don't know.
Describe how the A not B task has to do with self regulation:
The A not B could be an example of failure to self regulate. If it is self-regulation children do it before age two.
Describe Luria's Task
Hand tapping task. Originally kids respond by imitation. The task changes and kids must respond by making the opposite hand movement.
At what age are kids good at the Luria task?
By age 7 they are good and they continue to get better into adolescence.
The developmental course of self-monitoring and planning and strategizing are similar:
because you can't plan without self regularization.
Describe Cuvo's experiment measuring ability to develop and use a strategy.
5th, 8th and undergrads are given a word list to memorize. Some words are worth 1 cent and some words are worth 10 cents. 5th graders equally memorize both values but undergrads mostly remember 10 cent words.
What two types of memory strategies:
Internal support and external supports
What are types of internal support?
What is a type of external support?
Making a list
What are types of rehearsal?
Mental/ subvocal or vocal rehearsal
Describe DeLoach's hidden toy task:
An attractive toy is hidden while the child watches and a buzzer is set. If the child remembers where the toy is hidden they can have it.
Kids as young as ____ try to rehears in the DeLoach's hidden toy task but they are________ at it.
Describe Flavell's card-memory task:
7 cards with pictures of animal for kids to study. The cards are covered an the child is filmed to look for evidence of rehearsal.
In the Flavell's card-memory task kids can be ______ to implement a strategy but they have __________. And it will not occur to the child to ___________.
implement the strategy
Describe the memory strategy of Organization:
Chunking and clustering info divide words into categories. Very useful strategy.
When and how does the strategy or organization develop:
Organization doesn't emerge until grade 4. This is the same as the end of Piaget's Preoperational stage. Older kids use fewer chunks.
Describe the elaboration:
Makes info you must remember meaning for you. Shared meaning b/w old and new info. Takes lots of cognitive energy to produce but once you know it you will never forget it
Types of elaboration:
-list order acronyms ex. taxonomic categories
-number mnemonics ex. "how I wish I could calculate pie"
3 explanation for why young kids don't use strategies:
1) Mediation deficiency
2) Production deficiency
3) Utilization deficiency
Describe the mediation deficiency theory:
*false* Kids can't benefit from a strategy even if you teach it to them it fails to facilitate performance because it adds too much WM to the task
Describe the production deficiency theory:
Strategy will help but kids won't think to use it. Possibly too much for kids to process info and to think to use the strategy.
Describe the utilization deficiency theory:
Mediation deficiency (proven wrong) + Strategy inefficiency
Describe the strategy inefficiency part of utilization deficiency theory:
*Lots of evidence* Young children have a strategy but it doesn't work well so they don't use it. As time passes they get better and therefore benefit and use it more .
Why does strategy use improve with age?
- metacognition practice
- knowing which way of using the strategy is most useful
Having a knowledge base increases _______ within the ________ .
specific domain of expertise
Describe the expert child and novice adult chess players:
Had both expert child and novice adult chess players memorize positions of moves on a chessboard and numbers. Children did better than adults on chess positions b/c they were experts but their skills didn't generalize and adults did better than kids on the memory task.
Performace depends on ______ that match the knowledge base and performance is ________
Information processing abilities appear to be present at ______ but are _____