Lecture 8 Self Understanding Flashcards Preview

2AA3 Lectures > Lecture 8 Self Understanding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 8 Self Understanding Deck (79):
1

T or F: We are born knowing who we are

False

2

_____ is the understanding of who and what we are. It is a slippery concept whose definition is elusive.

self

3

Self understanding is our ___________, and includes the roles we play, social category, race and religion.

Self concept or schema

4

How do we test self understanding in pre-verbal infants?

Called either the mirror technique, Rouge or Mark test

5

The mirror technique was originally used in _________research.

non-human

6

Describe the Rouge test:

A mark is secretly placed on the childs forehead (this will violate their self image if they have one). Thhe child is placed before the mirror. If the try and do something to remove the paint it shows that they recognize that as themself.

7

The results of the rouge test indicate that children develop a sense of self at _________

18 months

8

At what age do children begin to be disturbed by distorting mirrors in fun houses?

18 months

9

T or F: The rouge test agrees with Piaget
Why?

True - 18 months is when piaget said that mental representations began

10

What are some potential problems with the rouge test?

Could be that exposure to mirrors is important -chimps who had never been exposed to a mirror didn't react.

11

Early childhood is described as ages___

6-7years

12

What are the 5 characteristics of self understanding in early childhood?

1) activities oriented
2) concrete
3) physical and material
4) centered
5) unrealistically positive

13

How are children in early childhood tested for self understanding?

through interviews

14

A child who describes themselves as knowing there ABCs is displaying the ______ characteristic of early childhood understanding.

concrete

15

T or F: Children in early childhood spontaneously make comparaisons

False - They are probably too egocentric to do this although they can do so if prompted

16

What types of comparisons do children in early childhood make?

Comparisons based on what they have or do

17

The characteristic of a 6 or 7 year old to describe the things they do and like to do is described as _____________.

Activities oriented- this is the central component of self understanding in young kids

18

Describe the difference between the actual vs the ideal self:

The actual self is how you currently are, the ideal self is how you would like to be.

19

A child who say that she can read while describing herself but who really can't is showing the characteristic of __________ she is probably describing her _________ and is likely between the ages of ______

unrealistic positivist
ideal self
6-7

20

The 5 characteristics of self understanding in early childhood are in line with which of Piaget's stages?

Preoperational stage

21

Describe the 4 traits of self understanding in Middle to Late childhood:

1) Shift to internal characteristics
2) Decentered
3) Spontaneous use of social references
4) More realistic

22

Describe how mid to late childhood kids are more realistice:

-They understand the difference between their actual vs ideal self
-Social comparison - they evaluate themselves against others

23

Describe accomplishments of self understanding in adolescence ?

1) increasingly abstract self descriptions
2) highly self-conscious (preoccupied with self)
3) increased ability to distinguish b/w ideal and actual self with the addition of possible selves
4) fluctuations in self understanding -inconsistencies
5) eventual integration into whole concept of self

24

Self understanding in adolescence consistent with which of Piaget's stages:

Formal operations

25

Piaget's concrete operational stage is consistent with which ages characteristics of self understanding?

Mid to late childhood:
- Shift to internal characteristics
- Decentered
- Spontaneous use of social references
- More realistic

26

Someone who describes themself as someone who could become a doctor if they study hard and get into the right schools is describing their ______ self and is likely in __________

possible
adolescence

27

If when asked to describe themself they say "I am in girl scouts and I have two friends" the stage of self understanding they are most likely to be in is ________ and they are showing most dominantly the trait of _______

early to late childhood
spontaneous social referencing

28

Someone who describes them self as:
"I like to bike, own an ant farm and am nice"
Is likely in __________ and is showing which 3 characteristics __________

early childhood
activities oriented - like to bike
physical material - own an ant farm
centered - only nice doesn't recognize he can be other things

29

Someone who describes them self as:
"I am reading level 3 but want to be reading level 5, I'm better at reading than Sally"
Is _______showing a distinction b/w ____________ as well as ________and is likely in __________

more realistic
the actual (reading lvl 3) and ideal self (reading level 5)
social comparison (better than Sally)
Mid to late childhood

30

Someone who describes them self as:
"I don't really know who I am, I think about it lots. I'm different with different people. I'm naturally funny but sometimes I forget and hurt people's feelings"
Is likely in __________ and is showing which 2 characteristics __________

adolescence
highly self conscious -preoccupied with self understand
- (I don't really know/ think about it lots)
increasingly abstract self-descriptions

31

Someone who describes them self as:
"Sometimes I think I know who I am and then I don't. I'm changing all the time"
Is likely in __________ and is showing which 3 characteristics __________

Adolescence
fluctuations in self understanding
highly self conscious

32

What is involved in the eventual integration of a a whole concept of self?

-general theory that survived inconsistencies
-formation of identity

33

Development of self understanding progresses as _________ progresses. We are not born knowing who we are we learn through ______

cognitive development
experience

34

The development of self understanding _________ understanding of others

parallels

35

T or F: Children can use the emotion of others to make decisions, they can recognize emotion and tone of voice.

True

36

Define Social cognitive development?

The development of understanding of others , the nuances of social interactions and relationships

37

What are 4 important abilites of social cognitive development?

1) describing others
2) reading others feelings
3) understanding social rules
4) understanding others' intentions

38

The developmental course of both _________ and _______ development is from concrete to abstract, definite to qualified and egocentric to general.

cognitive and social development

39

What are three basic differences between pple and objects?

1) interactivity
2) intentionality
3) social scripts

40

If you drop an object on the floor it won't say ouch. This is an example of __________

interctivity

41

If an object falls and hits you, versus a person hitting you you can't be mad b/c objects don't have _________ pple do even if their intentions are hidden

intentionality

42

Define social scripts:

the script that tells us how to behave when we are put into a social situation

43

Up to the ages of 6 or 8 descriptions of others focus on ________

external features

44

Beginning at ages 7 or 8 descriptions of others focus on ________

internal features

45

Beginning in the teen years descriptions of others focus on ________

Qualifiers and inferences

46

Describe external features (upto age 6 or 8):

-gender, what they like to do, how they acted during the last interaction (no conservation of personality)

47

Describe Internal features (age 7 or 8):

Traits are stable and can conserve personality. The person is the sum of all interactions

48

Describe Qualifiers and inferences (adolescence):

See things in shades of grey. Good and bad.

49

Describe Barnboims experiment testing the three step model of describing others:

Working off of the hypothesis had US children describe three pple and had blind research assistance code the hypothesis looking for the three steps:
1) external features
2) internal features
3) Qualifiers and inferences

50

What were Barnboims findings?
-___________descriptions peak at age 8 with ____% of statements of that type and stop around age 12
- Trait descriptions rapidly increase from age 8 to 14. At age 14 they peak with ___% of statements that type, They then begin to decrease but are still ___________
-qualifier use begins at age _____ and continues to increase with 30% of statements qualifiers at age 16

Behavioural descriptions - 10%
60% - the most widely used
age 10

51

_____________ is critical to the development of positive social relationships. Humans are social animals and these relationships are part of being human.

understanding others emotions

52

How do we deduce others emotions?

Theory of mind
Body and facial signals
Understanding social context

53

__________ allows for searching for info on others states.

Theory of mind

54

There is evidence for theory of mind at age ______

3 or 4

55

kids pick up on body and facial signals as early as ___ as seen in the ______________experiment

2 years old
visual cliff social referencing experiment

56

T or F: Understanding others emotions follows a gradual developmental course

True - it continues to develop with age either continuously or in stages depending on researcher

57

The experience of picking up on and matching another's emotional state is known as ________. It is generally felt for negative emotions.

empathy

58

________ is picking up on but not matching another's emotional state.

sympathy

59

T or F: Empathy is more complex than sympathy

False - sympathy is likely more complex

60

What are the stages of Hoffman's four-stage model of empathy development?

1) Global empathy
2) egocentric empathy
3) empathy for anothers current situation
4) Empathy for anothers general condition

61

Global empathy occurs from ages _____

0-12 months

62

Egocentric empathy occurs from ages _____

12 to 24 months

63

Empathy for another's current situation occurs from ages _____

2 to 3 years

64

Empathy for another's general situation occurs from ages _____

teens

65

The stage that occurs between 0-12 months is _______ and consists of ________ another's emotional state.
Ex. crying when someone else cries.

global empathy
matching

66

The stage that occurs between 12-24 months is _______ and consists ofpartly matching anothers emotions and trying to solve distress ego ecentrically.
Ex. ______________

egocentric empathy
giving someone your teddy or getting your mom for someone (stuff that would comfort you but probably not the person who is upset)

67

The stage that occurs between 2 -3 years is _______ it is a ____________ stage and consists of ________ responses to another's emotional state/ distress.

empathy for another's current situation
less egocentric
more thoughtful/ helpful

68

The stage that occurs in teens is _______ and involves ________ rather than empathy, this stage consists of recognizing that ___________ and ___________ are required for different degrees of bad things.

empathy for another's general condition
sympathy
different degrees of sympathy and responses

69

Individual differences in emotional response occur due to _______ and ________

nature and nurture

70

Individual differences in emotional response occur due to nature are seen in psychopathic studies showing______________

that there is a biological component in the chronic underarousal of their cortex

71

Individual differences in emotional response occur due to nurture are seen children with warm moms tend to have ________ than children with colder parents. Children whose parents _____________ are also more empathetic.

more empathy
explain consequences

72

There are two types of rules, "no running inside the school" is an example of a __________rule while "respect pples rights/ no hitting" is an example of a ________rule.

conventional
moral

73

Kids typically understand the difference between conventional and moral rules by ages ____

7 or 8

74

T or F: Young kids understand the role of intent for their own and -sort of- for others behaviour

True

75

How do we know young kids understand the role of intent for their own behaviour?

They will say they didn't mean to break something

76

Describe the experiment showing that young kids sort of understand the role of intent for others behaviour:

1,2 and 5 year olds listened to a story about Sam who engaged in a moreal transgression either by accident or on purpose and rated him on a seven point scale (7 =good)

77

What were the results of the experiment showing that young kids sort of understand the role of intent for others behaviour:

Kids rated Sam from goodest to baddest:
no harm-no intent condition ----- harm-no intent,----no harm -intent -------- harm intent
* The fact that there are significant differences between the harm and no harm conditions despite intentions shows that kids don't completely understand intent*

78

In the Sam story experiment: The fact that there are significant differences between the harm and no harm conditions despite intentions shows that kids don't completely understand intent. Why might this be the case?

Lack of abstract thought

79

Children's understanding of self and others is _______ and depends on __________ including concreteness vs abstractness and theory of mind

intertwined
concreteness vs abstractness