Flashcards in Lecture 4 Piaget Deck (57):
The father of the field of cognitive development and the first person to study it systematically was ________
Two theoretical perspective:
The ______ is the idea that children construct knowledge as they go and build ideas with age.
The Maturational Perspective is :
Development is tied to our biological maturation as we age certain skills and abilities develop. We could not develop these skills if the brain was not ready.
What were Jean Piaget's Key ideas:
1)Intelligence is adaptive
2) Kids are active motivated learners
3) Kids construct their own knowledge based on what they already know
Define Cognitive equilibrium:
What you know is explaining what you are experiencing.
Children are constantly taken out of __________ and put into _________ b/c everything is new to them
Cognitive development is the development of increasingly complex_______
_____ is an adaptive basic life function
Kids are ________ learners
Kids construct their own knowledged based on _________
what they already know
Organized patterns of thoughts or actions constructed to interpret our experiences. Children's theories about the world help them to organize experiences to interpret the world.
How do kids construct and modify their schemes?
Adaptation and organization
What are the two processes involved in Adaptation?
Assimilation and accomodation
New experiences that are interpreted in terms of existing schemas. Readily incorporated into child's theories
When a new object cannot be assimilated into an existing schema a new schema is created to accommodate it.
When _______ occurs children reorganize their theories to return to a _________ this is called ________
State of equilibrium
After a new concept is incorporated into the child's theory either through assimilation or through attempted assimilation followed by accomodation, the childs must reorganize their mental organization of schemas
Describe the process of a baby using the banging schema on an egg:
An egg is not bangable therefore it will not assimilate into their banging schema and accomodation will occur to create a schema of not bangable objects
The goal of intelligence is to create balance b/w _______ and _____ (Equilibration)
what we know and what we experience
Cognitive devlopment is motivated by _____
How is equilibrium acheived?
Through adaptation (assimilation and accomodation) and organization
What are Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development?
3) Concrete operational
4) Formal operational
The sensorimotor stage spans from _______ and involves the progression from __________ to ________.
Birth to age 2
Simple reflex actions (reflexive thinkers)
symbolic processing (reflective thinkers)
What are the six substages of the sensorimotor stage?
1) Reflexive activity
2) Primary Circular Reactions
3) Secondary Circular Reactions
4) Coordination of Secondary Schemas
5) Tertiary Circular Reactions
6) Symbolic processing
Between birth and 1 month a child is likely to be in which stage?
Sensorimotor - Substage 1
- Reflexive Activity
Between 1 and 4 months a child is likely to be in which stage?
Sensorimotor - Substage 2
- Primary Circular Reactions
Between 4 and 8 months a child is likely to be in which stage?
Sensorimotor - Substage 3
- Secondary Circular Reactions
Between 8 and 12 months a child is likely to be in which stage?
Sensorimotor - Substage 4
- Coordination of Secondary Schemes
Between 12 and 18 months a child is likely to be in which stage?
Sensorimotor - Substage 5
- Tertiary Circular Reactions
Between 18 and 24 months a child is likely to be in which stage?
Sensorimotor - Substage 6
- Symbolic Problem Solving
During Sensorimotor - Substage 1 - Reflexive Activity the child will engage in __________
Mindless exercising of reflexes
The ability to use a reflex based schema to do something you want to do (ex. thumb sucking) occurs during the _________
Primary Circular reactions Substage (1-4 mths)
What is the difference between sensorimotor substage 2 and substage 3?
Substage 2 (primary circular reactions) involves body related events while Substage 3 (Secondary Circular Reactions) involves object related events.
The first occurance of intentional planned behaviour at 8 months, occurs during Substage __, ____________.
4 - Coordination of Secondary Schemes
Describe Substage 4:
- planned intentional behaviour
- using multiple schema to achieve a goal (means to an end)
- Use schemas to understand an object.
An infant that grasps a blanket not for pleasure but to get a toy is in ________. An infant who bangs a rattle is likely in _________.
substage 4 (goal directed behaviour)
Substage 4 (using a schema to understand an object)
Lorrant lying on his back an dropping a box from different spatial locations to see what happens is in _________.
Substage 5 Tertiary Circular Reactions
What occurs during the Tertiary Circular Reactions substage?
- creation of interesting events in new ways ("what will happen if ...")
- Learn how object interact with each other and the world
- Trial and Error Schema
At approx age _____ and Substage ________ the Trial and Error schema is the only schema children have to figure out the world.
12 to 18 months and Substage 5 - Tertiary Circular Reaction
Describe the symbolic problem solving substage:
- Can figure things in there head without trial and error.
- Mental problem solving
Using a stick to pull a piece of bread closer is an example of__________
Substage 6 symbolic problem solving.
The capstone accomplishment of the sensorimotor stage is _________. Skills that reflect this accomplishment are ________ and ________
symbolic problem solving
deferred imitation and object permanence
What is deferred imitation and when does it occur according to Piaget?
Deferred imitation is copying behaviour later on. According to Piaget deferred imitation should not occur prior to substage 6 because prior to that there aren't any mental representations.
Define object permanence:
The idea that an object has permanence is separate from our ability to see or feel it.
Descibe evidence for object permanence at each substage:
Substage 1 and 2- No evidence
Substage 3- May search if they are the one to drop it or if some portion is still visible
Substage 4- Search but A not B errors
Substage 5- No A not B errors but invisible displacement
Substage 6 - Success
A not B errors occur in substage ___ and are defined as:
An object is not defined by its objctive location but by the infants previous experiences. Could be response inhibition
If an object disappears when it is passed behind another object and the child doesn't recognized where the object could be found or do a trial and error search this is an example of ________ and shows that the child doesn't completely understand ________ and is likely in ______
Describe the experiment that found 12 day old infants could replicate models. Was this experiment reliable?
Found that if the model stuck out tongue 12 day old infant had 40% chance of making a tongue protrusion and a 10% chance of opening mouth. If the model open mouth the baby was 2% likely to do TP and 8% likely to open mouth. This experiment had replication problems and may not be reliable.
In an experiment 6 month old babies saw a model press a button and make a light flash. A few days later when the baby returned to the lab they were more likely to press the button. What is this experiment showing and what are its implications?
This experiment is showing deferred imitation. The fact that 6 month olds can do this means that infants (likely substage 3) younger than the 18 to 24 month olds in substage 6 can do deferred imitation and may have mental representations.
Describe the Rovee-collier mobile experiment:
A mobile is hung over 3 month olds cribs. 1/2 could make move by kicking foot tied to it, 1/2 were control. The experimental group increased kicking and continued to kick more a day later when the string was removed, this indicates a memory trace.
How would Piaget explain the Rovee-collier mobile experiment?
Classical conditioning which he believed in.
The fact that in A not B errors infants often look where towards site B where the target is even if they reach for site A indicates that the infant may actually know where the object is but be exhibiting __________
poor response inhibition
Describe Baillargeon's impossible events:
- 4.5 mth infants saw a fan passing through object
- 3.5 mth infants saw a tall carrot passing behind box with window in it and not being seen through window
What were the results of Baillargeon's impossible events
-Babies looked longer at the fan passing through object than if it stopped ( even tho they don't look longer for longer events)
-Babies dishabituated for the Tall carrot not being seen in the window but not for the short carrot not being seen
What are the implications of Baillargeon's impossible events?
In this simplified object permanence task it was fount that infants showed knowledge of object permanence as early as 3.5 mths. Possible that Piaget's tasks were to motor difficult for infants and that they had intentionality