Lecture 10 Attachment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Attachment Deck (87):
1

The way you develop relationships with your parents is a _________ for all your other relationships. If your parents respect you and your rights you will expect that from other people,

Template

2

T of F: Attachment has larger implications

TRUE!!!

3

Temperament:

The inborn predisposition to behave in a certain way.

4

The first major classifications system was created by Thomas and Chess to classify babies. It was able to classify __% of babies into one of three types: _________, _______, __________

65%
Easy baby
Difficult baby
Slow to warm up baby

5

Describe an easy baby:

40% of babies
-approach new things positively
-relaxed and flexible
-regular sleep and wake cycle
-respond well to change

6

Describe a difficult baby:

- awful grating cries (rated worse by blind raters)
- unpredictable sleep wake cycle
- tend to be more negative

7

Describe a slow to warm up baby:

- don't get irritated or happy the way other babies do
- don't react strongly when given new things
- don't appear either delighted or dismayed very often

8

T or F: Environment can change the effect of the easiness of a baby

True

9

T or F: Infants temperament they are born with is a good predictor of them as an adult

True

10

Describe the Temperament trait:
Activity level

High or low, vigorous or lethargic movement

11

Describe the Temperament trait:
Positive emotionality

like moving towards rather than away from pple

12

Describe the Temperament trait:
Negative emotionality

fussy respond with anger and loudness, dominated by negative emotions

13

Describe the Temperament trait:
inhibition/ anxiety

avoiding new things, tend not to approach new situations

14

Describe the Temperament trait:
effortful control

Marshmellow test - the ability to stay focused , manage attention and effort
- kids use self regulation techniques to engage in effortful control

15

Activity level correlates to the Big 5 trait ________

extraversion

16

Positive emotionality correlates to the Big 5 traits ________, ________

extraversion, agreeableness

17

Negative emotionality correlates to the Big 5 trait ________

neuroticism

18

Inhibition/ anxiety correlates to the Big 5 traits_______,______,_______

introversion, openness, neuroticism

19

Effortful control correlates to the Big 5 traits _______,_________, _________

conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness

20

Describe attachment from a psychanalysis perspective:

Attachment occurs thrugh the satisfaction of Id impulses. One of the things that determines attachment is how caring the mother is when it comes to breastfeeding.

21

Describe attachment from a learning theory perspective:

Attachment occurs through the satisfaction of hunger. The baby has a hunger drive that is satisfied by food.
Primary reinforcer = food
Secondary reinforcer= mom

22

Who debunked learning theory?

Harlow

23

How did harlow debunk learning theory?

Baby monkey with two moms wire food mom and soft plush mom without food. The wire mom did nothing to comfort the baby monkeys but the plush mom did. This shows that baby monkeys attach to the mom without food, attachment isn't about food

24

T or F: If mom is unresponsive the baby will attach to dad even if mom is the one who changes his diaper and breastfeeds.

True

25

Describe the Cognitive Development Approach to attachment:

-able to recognize mom faster than others.
-object permanence - in order for someone to be your safe base they have to exist even if you can't see them
-ability to form mental representations so that they can keep mom in mind after she is gone

26

Describe the evolutionary approach to attachment:

Attachment is adaptive, ancestors who couldn't keep their parents interested didn't survive.

27

A relatively long enduring tie inwhich the person is unique and can't be swapped for another, desire to be close to them, is called an _________ The first bit of a baby's life is about these bonds.

Affectional Bond

28

Safe base is called__________

A special sense of security or comfort felt in the presence of another.

29

Can parents be attached to a child?

yes but this is a dysfunctional relationship. Kids should be attached to parents not the other way around.

30

What are attachment behaviours?

Smiling, eye contact, seeking attachment figures

31

When do people exhibit attachment behaviours?

When you feel unsafe or helpless. You don't see as many children in older children. When something is scary or bad you go to your attachment figure

32

What predicts development of affectional bonds?

Genes
Synchrony

33

How do genes predict affectional bonds?

- can code biological behaviours by children and parents

34

How does synchrony predict affectional bonds?

Babies send signals. parents react to these signals sensitivity and babies are confronted. Almost like a conversation, most pple know how to respond (coded by genes)

35

Describe mother child bonds:

Quite activities comforting, she is generally the basic care giver

36

Describe Father child bonds:

Spend more time playing rather than just hanging out. exciting

37

How many phases of attachment are there?

three

38

Phase 1 is the __________ orienting and signaling stage. It occurs b/w ____ months and includes the baby using proximity promoting behaviour indiscriminantly to be satisfied by anyone.

non-focused
0-2 months

39

In what phase is the affectional bond formed?

phase 1 b/c the mom is usually the one to respond to the baby

40

Phase 2 is proximity producing behaviour _____________. It occurs b/w ___ months. The baby is still somewhat indiscriminate, no one person is a _______. Attachment is _______

focused on special people
2-6 months
safe base
still not formed

41

Phase 3 is forming genuine ______. Proximity promoting behaviour is no longer indiscriminate. Attachment figure becomes a _________. This phase occurs b/w ___ months.

attachment
safe base
6-18 months

42

What are two side effects of phase 3 and choosing a safe base?

fear of strangers
separation anxiety

43

At what age do babies prefer dad to a stranger?

7 or 8 months

44

In a normal situation 7 or 8 month olds prefer ____

- lol no preference

45

In a scary situation 7 or 8 month olds prefer_____

mom. Dad is usually a secondary attachment figure, but in most cases he can be primary.

46

Dads relationship with baby can be predicted based on ____________ , dads who feed babies more also probably have a stronger________.

the # of diapers they change/ week

47

Describe the Efe communal rearing and how it affects attachment:

Any women will breastfeed and care for any child. The only thing distinguishing mom is that she sleeps with babies. Babies will use any adult as a safe base but still prefer mom.

48

In the Kibbutz attachment to mom is stronger when ________ vs _________.

mom is doing the rearing vs communal rearing

49

Phase 4 begins at age _____ and is the stage in which attachment behaviours ____________. You are able to communicate resulting in a more mutual relationship. Proximity is not longer crucial in normal situation and there is decreased separation anxiety due to ________. Childrens fear of strangers also decreases because child can use __________ to figure out if the stranger is bad.

2years
become less observable
mental representations
social referencing

50

By middle childhood - ages 4or 5 attachment behaviours become even less obvious. Child still seeks physical proximity _________.

When under stress

51

T or F: An attachment relation ship is always a good relationship

False -we attach to the person we spend the most time/ our primary care giver regardless of quality of parenting. It's not necessarily a good relationship

52

What is a big consequences of attachment quality?

Internal working models

53

Internal working models are formed by what age?

Age 5- they probably can from sooner due to required cognitive development

54

Internal working models are based on ________ with the attachment figure and whether they will be there for you.

experience

55

Internal working models were provide us with knowledge about:

1) What to expect from relationships with others
2) Rules for interacting with others

56

If greeted with affection the model will be _________. If the child is rejected the model will be__________.

people are safe, I am important
People are unsafe, I don't matter

57

Internal working models shape and explain experieces through. Through _____________ bias and interpretation of __________with others.

information processing biases
encounters

58

T or F: We recreate the pattern of our attachment relationship with other relationships.

True

59

Describe the strange situation:

Eight short episodes during which the baby separated from and reunited with mom. This is clearly stressful for the child, but good window into how the baby reacts and how the parent behaves.

60

The strange situation is used to rate the babies quality of __________.

Attachment

61

Infants behavour is rated on five scales including:

1) proximity and contact seeking - reaching for mom
2) contact maintaining -how long they hug mom
3) Resistance -squirming to get away
4) avoidance - not interacting/ looking away
5) search - behaviour other than crying that attempts to reach mom

62

In the stange situation it is ideal that there is a balance b/w attachment needs and ___________.

The desire to explore the area.

63

____% of children are securely attached and ____% are insecurely attached.

65%
35%

64

Describe securely attached children:

- mom is a safe base
- prefer mom to a stranger
- cope well with separation
- Happy reunion
* it's a good longterm predictor

65

What are the three types of insecure attachement:

1) avoidant/ detached
2) ambivalent/ resistant
3) disorganized disoriented

66

______ is at the root of insecure attachment

parenting

67

A child who avoids contact, doesn't react differently to mom vs a stranger.

Avoidant/ detached

68

Moms of avoidant/ detached are:

good when the baby is happy but rejecting when the baby isn't happy

69

A kid who is desperate for mom to comfort them, clingy/ angry, ineffective hyper proximity promoting behaviour. Not reassured and unsure how to act. Really want mom to be there for them

ambivalent/ resistant

70

Moms of ambivalent resistant are:

Are there for child sometimes but not consistent. Parents of this type are generally under lots of stress and sometimes depressed

71

What type of child is typical of an abusive home/ or whose parents may have been abused

disorganized/ resistant

72

A baby that is dazed and confused and doesn't know how to react to the separation or the reunion ex. moves towards mom but doesn't look at her.

Is likely disorganized/ resistant

73

What are the predictors of attachment style:

1) emotional availability
2) sensitivity/ responsiveness
3) Temperament

74

Why is emotional availability important?

if the parent isn't available to develop an affectional bond, no attachment bond will form.

75

Why is sensitivity / responsiveness important?

recall synchrony: parents must be atuned to your signals and how to comfort you

76

T or F: When parents at risk were given synchrony training babies were more secure and this carried into 18 months

True

77

Why is goodness of fit and temperament important?

- most parents are a good fit with easy babies, this is a good predictor of secure attachment

78

How do we know that more than temperament predicts attachment?

Only 40% of babies are easy but 65% are securely attached.

79

Only 40% of babies are easy but 65% are securely attached. What makes the difference?

Parenting - some parents are great at dealing with difficult and slow to warm up babies develop a good affectional bond - this is due to sensitivity and synchrony in parenting

80

T or F: If family environment is consistent, then attachment is consistent.

True

81

____% of 1 year olds who are insecurely attached, were still attached as adults. ___% or 7/11 of securely attached at 1 yo were still attached at 18 years old.

89%
64%

82

____% attachment style, age 1 to 6. For the most part attachment style at age 1 predicts attachment in adulthood.

82%

83

Can attachments change?

Yes if circumstances change attachment can change. Ex. if there is a death or someone moves in and provides an attachment figure

84

In almost 94% of subjects whos attachment style changed a __________ could be identitified, there was no spontaneous changes

causal factor

85

T or F: Attachment to a prmiary caregiver is adaptive. It is based on the affectional bond through childs signals and on parents response

True

86

T or F: Attachment doesn't persist into adulthood

False

87

Attachment interacts with 2 key things:

temperament and parenting style