Lecture 9 Moral Development Flashcards Preview

2AA3 Lectures > Lecture 9 Moral Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 9 Moral Development Deck (50):

What are three approaches to moral development?

1) pschoanalytic
2) Behaviorist
3) Cognitive Developmentalist


The Psychoanalytic approach includes theorists such as _________ and ________. It focuses on the role of moral emotions (_____,____,______)

Freud and Erikson
Shame, guilt, pride


Describe Freuds theory:

The superego is developed at the end of the phallic stage at approx. age 5 after the resolution of the edipus complex. If you have a healthy personality you pay attention to the super ego, this is how we learn the rules of society.


Freuds theory is that morality is based on the avoidence of two emotions: The ______ experiences the emotion ________ and is what you get if you do something that good pple don't do. The _________ experiences the emotion _______ and is the feeling that you get if you don't live up to the list of things you should do.

conscience - guilt
Ego ideal - shame


Erikson added the emotion of ______. You feel this when you do something good. Being a moral person is not just about avoiding the bad emotions it is also about feeling the positive emotions



The _______ approach view moral behaviour as the result of operant conditioning experiences (____ and _____)

behaviorist approach
rewards (good) and punishments (bad)


T or F: All punishments are effective

False - punishments that are scary, severe or emotional teach the wrong lesson (parents are mean). If the punishment is traumatizing you can't learn.


What makes up an effective punishment?

- speak calmly
- explain what they did that was wrong
- make you do something to repair the language


What did Bandura's social learning theory add to this model?

Vicariouss rewards and punishments can have an effect. If you see a TV character praised you learn that action is praise-worthy and vice versa. We learn by seeing the consequences of others actions


Describe the Cognitive approach to moral reasoning:

Moral reasoning is the process of making judgments about rightness or wrongness of a specific acts. The ability to reason depends on cognitive development.


What three aspects of cognitive development are important to the ability to use moral reasoning?

1) egocentrism: you can't feel like part of a community while egocentric
2) Centering: if you can only think one thing at a time you can't think about moral problems
3) Abstract thought: if you can't think abstractly you can't solve moral problems


What are two models that use the cognitive approach t moral development?

1) Piaget's Model of Moral Development (see text)
2) Kohlberg's Model of Moral Development


Describe the development of Kohlberg's theory of Moral development:

He thought we could learn more about peoples moral reasoning by presenting them with scenarios and judging how they respond. This helped him develop a framework for his theory.


What is an example of a moral dilemma Heinz presented?

The Heinz Dilema: Heinz is a man with a sick/dying wife. The pharmacist who invented the drug has all the rights to it and sells it for $2000. The man doesn't have that money and his wife is dying fast, he offers to pay $1000 and make installments on the rest but the pharmacist refuses. Should the man steal the drug? Should he be punished?


Describe the structure of Kohlbergs theory:

Three levels: preconventional, conventional and post -convetnional
- Each level has two stages.


In kohlbergs theory each stage shows a more ________ and ________ advanced way of reasoning:

cognitively and morally advanced


The morality level in which judgements are based on consequences to self and you are not yet looking towards a reference group or culture to decide right and wrong is called___________

Level 1 Preconventional Morality


Preconventional Morality contains two substages:

Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation
Stage 2: Self-interest Orientation


________ is the level in which moral judgements are based on membership in some reference group that is important enough to the person that they've internalized its norms.

Level 2: Conventional Morality


Conventional Morality contains two substages:

Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships
Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order


________ is the level that includes sophisticated thought about what is right or wrong, there is something larger than the rules of society, you start to analyze laws and norms and make choices on your own principles

Level 3: Post conventional Morality


Post-conventional Morality contains two substages:

Stage 5: Individual Rights Orientation
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles


The idea that things that get us punished are bad, things that don't are good and older pple must be obeyed is typical of stage:____________

Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation


The morality that things that feel good are good and it is fair and moral to reciprocated both good and bad acts is typical of stage ___________

Stage 2: Self-interest Orientation


Someone who thinks that it is fine to hit someone who hit you is likely in

Stage 2: Self-interest Orientation


The morality that has concern for other pple with the idea that motivation determines morality and if you have good intentions its fine is typical of stage___________

Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships


The morality that is concerned for society as a whole, if we don't follow lows society will fall apart and that cultural level obedience determines morality is typical of stage____________

Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order


A person whose concern for basic rights leads to questioning of inadequeate conventional rules as well as the idea that the democratic process must be adhered to is likely in___________

Stage 5: Individual Rights Orientation


T or F: Kohlberg found evidence for stage 6 in his interviews

False - it is more of a theoretical stage there must be pple who think this way


Someone who accepts that the quest for social justice can force you to break both conventional rules and democratic process is likely in stage _____________

Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles


Ghandi and Martin Luther King were probably in which stage?

Stage 6


Classify this person's response to the Heinz dilema:
"Bad to steal b/c he could get punished"
"It might be okay b/c what he is stealing is small"

Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience Orientation


Classify this person's response to the Heinz dilema:
"Don't generally favour breaking the law but in this case he is right to steal the drug b.c his wife's right to life is more important than the pharmacists right to money. The laws need to be changed"

Stage 5: Individual Rights Orientation


Classify this person's response to the Heinz dilema:
"It doesn't matter his motives, he can't steal the drug, there are laws against that and he can't just break the law. He should be punished as much as anyone with out a sick wife."

Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order


Classify this person's response to the Heinz dilema:
"He was right to steal the drug b/c he was trying to save his wife, he couldn't just watch her die. He shouldn't be punished b/c his motives were good. The pharmacist is a jerk."

Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships


Classify this person's response to the Heinz dilema:
"He was right to steal b/c the pharmacist was ripping him off. He should protect his wife so he doesn't have to live alone and be lonely"

Stage 2: Self-interest Orientation


At what ages are pple in the different developmental stages:

1) preconventional = elementary school
2) conventional = mid teens
3) postconventional = rare


T or F: Pple can be inbetween stges and in multiple stages.

True - based on colby, kohlberg et al's study and Walker et al study (see notes)


At age 10 what is the dominant morality reasoning type:

Stage 2: Self-interest Orientation - 60%


At age 18 (mid to late teens) what is the dominant morality reasoning type:

Stage 3: Interpersonal Relationships


At what age does Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order become dominant?

Early 20's


Do people's morality scores link to behaviour?

Pretty much


Schonert- Reichl looked at pples morality scores compared to the behaviours they typically engaged in and found that ________ typically scored lower and were often stuck in stages ____ and ____

1 and 2


In Gregg et al's study delinquents were matched to IQ with non-delinquents, it was found that only ____% of delinquents were conventional or higher, while ____% of matched subjects were conventional or higher

20% delinquents
60% controls


T or F: Increased moral reasoning increases the likelihood you will be nicer

True -positive correlation


T or F: increased moral reasoning increases the likelihood you will solve problems with violence

False- less likley to use violence -negative correlation


In Kohlberg's cheater's experiment subjects did and intelligence test without the experimenter in the room and were told to stop when the buzzer went off. Pple who had previously been scored on a morality test were watched for cheating. Results?

- Only 15% of post-conventional cheated
-55% of conventional cheated
- 70% of preconventional cheated
* it is easy to predict how pre- and post- conventional will behave but not how conventional will behave


T or F: Kohlbergs moral reasoning is associated with Piagetian cognitive development



T or F: Stages have the exact same start and end points across cultures

False - they typically unfold in the same way but without the same start and end points and emphases


Other theorists:
Gilligan looked at________
Eisenberg looked at_________

Gilligan looked at the ethics of caring, how to know when children will do a good thing for one another.
Eisenberg looked at the development of prosocial reasoning