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What is the effect of SES on Cognitive Ability in twins studied at 10 months and 2 years old? Why?

At 10 months there is very little difference but at 2 years:
Low SES = No effect of genes
Medium SES = start to get an effect
High SES = Gigantic genetic effect - the environment they're in is having a greater effect on genes which is having a greater effect on cognitive development


What causes Huntington's?

1. Repeated copies of Glutamine amino acid (42-86 ) Excess excitatory stimulation in the brain which results in oxidative stress and is neurotoxic
2. Decreased BDNF which is important in the survival and growth of nerve cells


What is the problem that the National Human Genome Research Institute runs into when looking for genetic information related to type 2 diabetes?

type 2 diabetes 2.2 million DNA variations in 10,000 people and found 18 related to the disease.

Those 18 only explain 6% of the disease

This is true of many disorders


What's the Difference between Common Variant and Rare Variants? Which are we dealing with in Abnormal behaviour?

Common Variant is more widespread in population
Rare Variant is specific to a certain family

Abnormal behavior is likely dealing with Rare Variants


What is Epigenetics?

Environment control the degree to which a gene operates and the times at which they opperate


What do you call a disorder who's heritability is not related to sex?



Where is the abnormal gene found in people with huntington's located?

Chromosome 4


What are 2 issues with Twin Studies?

1. Identical Twins tend to have a more homogeneous environment
2. There is evidence that they're genes aren't as identical as we though


what is a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)?

A model of how many genes interact together to produce an effect


What are Adoption studies?

Children whose parents Have a disorder raised by either parents who have the disorder or parents who don't have the disorder

Children whose parents Don't have a disorder raised by either parents who have the disorder or parents who don't

Attempt to separate heritability from environment


What did Adoption studies discover about the heritability of Alcoholism?

FOR MEN:The son of a male alcoholic will have a 4-9x increased chance of becoming an alcoholic regardless of whether they were raised in an environment with alcoholic parents or raised in an environment with parents who are not alocholics
FOR WOMEN: Opposite


What did Adoption studies discover about schizophrenia

environment has no effect


What causes Down's Syndrome?

Trisomy of chromosome 21


What causes trisomy of chromosome 21?

division problem during mitosis


What is the most significant factor contributing to Down's Syndrome?

Mother's Age


What is the basic precursor to plaques?

beta amyloid


Why are old eggs and sperm not a good idea?

increased number of cell divisions with age means increased chance of error


Name 4 diseases that the National Human Genome Research Institute is looking for genetic risk factors for

Type 2 Diabetes
Lung Cancer


What does a stronger family history predict?

severity and persistence of disorder