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Flashcards in Lecture 20 Deck (22):

How is it possible to condition an immune response?

pair Saccharine (CS) with Immunosuppressive Drug (UCS)=GI upset. During extinction mice can die


What does the case of Sue represent?

Her acute anxiety lead to psychotic behavior


What is the psychoanalytic theory of anxiety

1. anxiety is a warning that there is a conflict
2. the ego threatened (squeezed by id & superego)
3. Neoanalytic-Relationships


what is the Behavioral view of anxiety

1. Conditioned emotional response: disruption of ongoing behavior (anticipation of a negative stimulus)


What do the Psychoanalytic and Behavioral view of anxiety have in common?



What are the basic psychological responses of anxiety?

1. Excitement
2. Overreactivity
3. Vigilance
4. Behavior ineffective: because of faulty overgeneralization and response rigidity


Describe Luria's study

Students about to take a very stressful exam called the Chistka were asked to: press a bulb with right hand, hold left hand steady and respond to word association.

He found that compared to controls: they couldn't press the bulb in a rhythmic way, they couldn't hold the left hand stead and their word associations took much longer

profound effect of arousal on performance


What is Yerkes-Dodson Law?

There is an optimal level of arousal and too high or too low will cause performance to drop


Why cant subject SM judge fearful faces?

missing amygdala


What are the 3 features of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

1. Uncontrollability of worry
2. Intolerance to uncertainty
3. Ineffective problem solving skills


What is the prevalence of Generalized Anxiety Disorder? for male and female?

1 year: 3%
Lifetime: 5%
Sex ratio: 2/3 female


What the DSM-V criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

1. Excessive Anxiety and worry, over 6 months about a number of things
2. Difficulty in controlling the worry
3. 3 or more: 1)Restlessness 2)Fatigued 3)Trouble concentrating 4)Irritability 5)Muscle tension 6)Sleep disturbance
4. Not worry about panic attacks, embarrassment, being contaminated, being away from home, gaining weight, multiple physical complaints or serious illness
5. The worry/anxiety results in significant distress and impairment
6. Not due to drugs, medications, general medical condition, etc...


How does gender socialization affect GAD?

little boys and little girls are treated differently by their mothers


What comes first GAD or MDD?

no clear answer, can't really separate them


What is the diagnostic criteria for panic attacks?

1. Palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate
2. Sweating
3. Trembling or shaking
4. Sensations of shortness of breath or smothering
5. Feeling of choking
6. Chest pain or discomfort
7. Nausea or abdominal distress
8. Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint
9. Chills or heat sensations
10. Paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations)
11. Derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself)
12. Fear of losing control or going crazy
13. Fear of dying


What is the prevalence of panic disorder?

Lifetime: 1.5-3.5%
1 year: 1%-2%


What are the gender differences for panic disorder?

2-3 times more prevalent in women


What is Panic disorder comorbid with? what % of the time?

Depression: 50-65%
Agoraphobia: 20-60%


What are 6 ways of inducing panic attacks in a susceptible individual?

1. Hyperventilation
2. Carbon Dioxide
3. Lactate sodium
4. Stimulants
5. Progesterone
6. Stressors


What causes panic attacks?

A misinterpretation of physiological changes


What is a biological susceptibility factor for panic disorder?

Reduced GABA binding throughout the brain


What is the best treatment for panic symptoms?

exposure therapy