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What is the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for OCD?

1. Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both

2. The obsessions or compulsions are time-consuming; cause clinically sig. distress/impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning

3. OC symptoms not attributable to physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition

4.Disturbance not better explained by symptoms of another mental disorder


What is the DSM-V definition of an obsession?

1. Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted  cause anxiety or distress

2. Attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action


What is the DSM-V definition of a compulsion?

1. Repetitive behaviours or mental acts that the indiv. feels driven to perform in response to an obsession

2. Behaviours or mental acts aimed at preventing /reducing anxiety or distress, preventing some dreaded event/situation (excessive)


Give some Examples of OCD:

Harm & Checking
Contamination and washing


What os the prevalence of OCD?

Lifetime: 2.5%
1 year: 1.5-2.1%


What is the usual age of onset?

late teens, early 20's


Are there any gender differences in the prevalence of OCD?



What has OCD been linked with under the obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders?

1. Preoccupations/bodily sensations disorders: Body dysmorphic disorder, anorexia, hypochondriasis

2. Neurological disorders: Tourette's syndrome, Autism

3. Impulsive Disorders: Kleptomania, Pathologic Gambling


What is OCD most comorbid with?

Major Depressive Disorder


What is the evidence for a Biological Basis of OCD?

1. Runs in families
2. Often linked to Epilepsy & brain trauma (related to strep infections: autoimmune systems produce antibodies that are hostile toward Caudate nuclei)
3. Associated with movement disorders
4. Variations in Glutamate, serotonin, white matter genes
5. Treatment: drug = first choice, surgery
6. Imaging studies: Caudate nuclei


How is strep related to OCD?

autoimmune systems produce antibodies that are hostile toward Caudate nucleus


What is the Neurobiological model of OCD?

1. Dysregulation of the caudate nucleus
2. Dysfunction in the orbitofrontal-subcortical circuits
3. Brain volume changes


where is the caudate nucleus located?

Basal Ganglia


What are the functions of the caudate nucleus?

1. involved in memory, procedural learning
2. triggers the urge to 'do something'
3. Equivalent of ancient grooming, hoarding and nesting instincts


What brain volume changes take place in patients with OCD?

1. Reduced volume of the left anterior cingulate cortecx
2. Reduced volume in the left and right orbitofrontal cortex
3. Increased volumes of left and right thalamus
4/ Increased grey matter density of frontal subcortical circuits


What is the Behavioral Model of OCD?

Learning aspects:
Ways people attempt to control arousal through avoidance which is difficult to change because it's negatively reinforced


Give an example of avoidance learning response substitution:

Symbolic undoing


What is symbolic undoing?

1. Person has an experience which produces guilt
2. They engage in an act that tried to symbolically undo what they feel guilty about
3. Act becomes a compulsion


Give an example of symbolic undoing

Washing hands after a "dirty deed"


What are some family factors associated with OCD?

1. Highly verbal but not very communicative
2. positive evaluation of etiquette
3. Social isolation & withdrawal
4. Emphasis on cleanliness
3. instrumental morality


Give an example of how superstition can result in OCD

example with pigeons being given food randomly, ended up reinforcing whatever behavior they happened to be doing

Trobriand islanders: developed a religion around fishing in the open sea and not around fishing in the lagoon


What is the Cognitive Model of OCD? what model is it complimentary to?

1. Over importance of thoughts & need to control thoughts
2. Overestimation of threat & lack of tolerance for uncertainty
3. Excessive responsibility
4. Perfectionism
5. Lack of tolerance for emotional discomfort

Complimentary to the Behavioral Model


What are the Treatments for OCD?

SSRIs: problem 40% don't respond and the remainder attain moderate improvement at best. Frequent relapse when drug is discontinued


Exposure and response prevention


What kind of surgery is performed on severe cases of OCD? What is their success rate?

Cingulotomy or Capsuotomy
25-30% experience improvement


What are the 4 steps in exposure response prevention?

1. Expose to threatening stimuli
2. Prevent response
3. Wait for anxiety to reduce
4. Notice the anxiety reduction


What are the success rates of Exposure and Response Prevention?

75-80% can expect benefits
70-80% maintain at 1 year follow-up
Benefits persist at 6 year follow-up


What are "Masked Behaviors"

men who engage in other behaviors that mask their depression


What are the theories that try to explain the gender difference in depression?

1. There is no difference: masked depression
2. Cultural role effects
3. Biological (Estrogen etc...)


What is a Biochemical explanation for depression?

Problem with Catecholamines:
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Serotonin


What does Serotonin have an important role in?



How does Serotonin Turnover differ in depressed individuals?

it is much more rapid than in individuals who aren't depressed


What is the Psychoanalytic Model of Depression?

Spiral: begins with:
1. Early Infantile lack of love
2. Dependency
3. Lack of Self-Esteem
4. Ambivalence
5. Loss
6. Guilt turned inward
7. Depression


What is a theme throughout the depression literature?



What stages does a monkey go through when it's separated with it's mother?



What is the Learned Helplessness paradigm?

learn that no matter what you do it won't work


What is Lewinsohn's loss of reinforcement theory of depression?

Low rate of positive reinforcement -> leads to a vicious circle


What is Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression?

Cognitive Triad:
Negative view of Self
Negative view of World
Negative view of Future