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What would Anna O. be diagnosed as?

Conversion Hysteria


What is the term for experiencing relief after expressing emotions?



How did the concept of the unconscious emerge?

It emerged because Anna O. could only remember certain things when hypnotized leading Freud to believe that there were experiences that were in her unconscious.


What are the 4 main points of Psychoanalytic Theory?

1. Different Levels of Consciousness
2. Structure of Personality
3. Stages of Psychosexual Development
4. Defence Mechanisms


What are the 3 levels of Consciousness?

1. Conscious
2. Preconscious
3. Unconscious


Describe the Freudian Structures of Personality

Closed Energy System

ID: everything inherited and present at birth (instincts) Purpose: Satisfy Needs. Pleasure Principal
Ego: Reality Principal. Purpose: to fit the ID into reality. Defence mechanisms. (tried to satisfy the ID)
Super Ego: Internal Representation of values. often conflicts with the ID


Name 8 Defence Mechanisms

Roger Rabbit Paid Innocent Daffy Duck Ridiculous Sapphires

1. Repression: burying the unacceptable impulses of the id in the unconscious.
2. Regression: Employing behaviours typical of an earlier stage of development
3. Projection: Attributing one's own desires to others
4. Intellectualization: Hiding issues behind abstract analysis
5. Denial: Refusal to acknowledge unpleasant reality
6. Displacement: Transfer feelings from one person to another less threatening person
7. Reaction Formation: Repressing unacceptable desires by expressing the opposite view
8. Sublimation: Transformation of sexual or aggressive energy into a more acceptable activity


What are the Psychosexual stages of Development?

1. Oral Stage (0-18 months): Oral gratification. Failures to resolve stage: alcoholism, eating disorders, over-talking
2. Anal Stage (18 months - 3 years): Gratification: retaining/eliminating. Failures to resolve stage: Expulsive-Retentive: stubbornness, over-controlling, hoarding
3. Phallic stage (3-6): Penis Envy, Oedipus and Electra Complex. Resolution: Identify with same sex parent. Failure to resolve: Problems in sexual relations
4. Latency stage (6-12): Focus on intellectual and motor skills
5.Genital stage (after 12): Development of romantic relations with peers


What methods are used in Psychoanalysis? Which two were most important to freud?
what is the problem?

1. Free Association
2. Dream Analysis
3. Projective Testing
4. Transference
5. Hypnosis
Free Association = 1
Dream Analysis = 2

Problem = How do you test it? how do you validate it?


What was Freud's view of validating his theory?
How do you validate?

Can't ask the patient because of repression

Must be logical: circular argument

If it works: What does working mean? no independent definitions

Subliminal activation


What are the Benefits of PsychoanalyticTheory?

1. Expansion of Psychology:
2. Emphasis on development,
3. Emphasized psychotherapeutic approaches
4. Developed a theory of normal behaviour


What are some Criticisms of Psychoanalytic theory?

1. Dogmatism (proclaimed unquestionably true)
2. Overemphasis on sex
3. Self fulfilling prophecy (circular arguments)
4. Treatment = Long, Costly and Effectiveness is questioned
5. Can't test it


What are some methods used to recover memories?

1. Hypnosis
2. Dream Interpretation
3. Guided Imagery
4. Family Photos
5. Memory Instruction
6. Interpretation


What is Subliminal activation: What is the problem with it?

Subliminal activation: present stimuli subliminally to patients
Problem: absolute threshold means you see it 50% of the time (if the person see something disturbing 50% of the time you're going to be more disturbed)