Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (14):
What would Anna O. be diagnosed as?
What is the term for experiencing relief after expressing emotions?
How did the concept of the unconscious emerge?
It emerged because Anna O. could only remember certain things when hypnotized leading Freud to believe that there were experiences that were in her unconscious.
What are the 4 main points of Psychoanalytic Theory?
1. Different Levels of Consciousness
2. Structure of Personality
3. Stages of Psychosexual Development
4. Defence Mechanisms
What are the 3 levels of Consciousness?
Describe the Freudian Structures of Personality
Closed Energy System
ID: everything inherited and present at birth (instincts) Purpose: Satisfy Needs. Pleasure Principal
Ego: Reality Principal. Purpose: to fit the ID into reality. Defence mechanisms. (tried to satisfy the ID)
Super Ego: Internal Representation of values. often conflicts with the ID
Name 8 Defence Mechanisms
Roger Rabbit Paid Innocent Daffy Duck Ridiculous Sapphires
1. Repression: burying the unacceptable impulses of the id in the unconscious.
2. Regression: Employing behaviours typical of an earlier stage of development
3. Projection: Attributing one's own desires to others
4. Intellectualization: Hiding issues behind abstract analysis
5. Denial: Refusal to acknowledge unpleasant reality
6. Displacement: Transfer feelings from one person to another less threatening person
7. Reaction Formation: Repressing unacceptable desires by expressing the opposite view
8. Sublimation: Transformation of sexual or aggressive energy into a more acceptable activity
What are the Psychosexual stages of Development?
1. Oral Stage (0-18 months): Oral gratification. Failures to resolve stage: alcoholism, eating disorders, over-talking
2. Anal Stage (18 months - 3 years): Gratification: retaining/eliminating. Failures to resolve stage: Expulsive-Retentive: stubbornness, over-controlling, hoarding
3. Phallic stage (3-6): Penis Envy, Oedipus and Electra Complex. Resolution: Identify with same sex parent. Failure to resolve: Problems in sexual relations
4. Latency stage (6-12): Focus on intellectual and motor skills
5.Genital stage (after 12): Development of romantic relations with peers
What methods are used in Psychoanalysis? Which two were most important to freud?
what is the problem?
1. Free Association
2. Dream Analysis
3. Projective Testing
Free Association = 1
Dream Analysis = 2
Problem = How do you test it? how do you validate it?
What was Freud's view of validating his theory?
How do you validate?
Can't ask the patient because of repression
Must be logical: circular argument
If it works: What does working mean? no independent definitions
What are the Benefits of PsychoanalyticTheory?
1. Expansion of Psychology:
2. Emphasis on development,
3. Emphasized psychotherapeutic approaches
4. Developed a theory of normal behaviour
What are some Criticisms of Psychoanalytic theory?
1. Dogmatism (proclaimed unquestionably true)
2. Overemphasis on sex
3. Self fulfilling prophecy (circular arguments)
4. Treatment = Long, Costly and Effectiveness is questioned
5. Can't test it
What are some methods used to recover memories?
2. Dream Interpretation
3. Guided Imagery
4. Family Photos
5. Memory Instruction