Flashcards in Lectures 16 + 17 Deck (42):
What are the first 3 differences between Freudian Theory and Radical Behaviorism?
1. Freudian: Derived from clinical observation Radical Behaviorism: Derived from experimentation
2. Freudian: Symptoms are visible upshot of unconscious causes
Radical Behaviorism: Symptoms are unadaptive conditioned responses
3. Freudian: Regards symptoms as evidence of repression
Radical Behaviorism: Regards symptoms as evidence of faulty learning
Give and example of classical conditioning and explain how it works
Pavlov's dogs -Food: Unconditioned stimulus -Bell: Conditioned stimulus -Food induced salivation: Unconditioned response -Bell induced salivation: Conditioned response
Who is the father of Behaviorism? What is his most famous experiment?
John Watson Little Albert: Baseline at 9 months (enjoyed playing with the rat) conditioning at 11 months: rat paired with loud noise
What is a BMI
ratio of height and weight
How is "normal" BMI defined?
The range where there aren't medical complications
What is the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa
1. Restriction of energy intake leading to a significantly low body weight
2. Intense fear of gaining weight
3. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced
What is the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for Bulimia Nervosa?
Diagnosis based on behaviors
1. Recurrent episodes of Binge Eating
2. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors
3. 1 + 2 must occur at least once a week for 3 months
4. Self evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape or weight
What do anorexia and bulimia have in common?
importance of body shape/weight
What are the markers of severity for Anorexia and Bulimia?
Anorexia: BMI (because of the medical concerns)
Bulimia: Frequency of behaviors
What is the Mortality of Anorexia?
About on par with bipolar and schizophrenia
About 5-10x higher than someone without anorexia
Risk of dying by suicide = 18-35x higher
What is the Mortality of Bulimia
2x higher than without
What is the prevalence of Anorexia?
Less than 1%
What is the prevalence of Bulimia?
What is the prevalence of Binge eating disorder?
What is the age of onset of eating disorders?
begin around adolescence and peak in 20-30
What is the cognitive model of eating disorders?
There is a problem with regulating emotion
Emotion disregulation model
What are the best ways to treat anorexia?
CBT and family systems therapy
What % of people are overweight?
What % are obese
Which parts of the brain are associated with obesity
Orbital frontal cortex
Do rats prefer cocaine or sugar?
What is the problem with Obesity treatments?
Most people regain the weight
What is a promising treatment for obesity?
Watson believed there were 3 basic responses to which we could be conditioned, what are they?
What is the problem with the classical conditioning explanation of phobias?
Most phobias don't develop that way, often the person hasn't even had a negative experience with what they fear. Not everyone who has a negative experience develops a phobia
What is the Operant Conditioning Approach?
Classical conditioning is a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one. (stimulus precedes response)
Operant conditioning utilizes reinforcement and punishment to create associations between behaviors and the consequences for those behaviors
In operant conditioning reinforcement follows the response. Ex. Response: Tell a joke, Reinforcement: Friends laugh Likelihood of joke telling behavior increases
What is Extinction?
The withdrawal of a positive stimulus
WHat factors effect the strength of a reinforcer?
1. Motivational state
-deprivation conditions (hunger, social contact)
2. Delay of reinforcement
-inability delay gratification (impulsivity)
-satiation (ex. flooding ward with magazines to stop patients from taking them)
6. Schedules (fixed or variable)
Name and Describe the difference conditioning schedules
2. According toTime
-Fixed Interval (every 10 minutes response is rewarded)
-Variable Interval (10 minutes would be the mean time between responses)
3. According to Number
-Fixed Interval (after every 10 responses reward)
-Variable Interval ( 10 responses would be the mean # of responses before reward)
Which conditioning schedules are the most resistant to change?
How do you get new bhaviors?
1. Shaping new bahaviours: successive approximations (ex teaching rat to do a series of actions starting at the end)
-Correlation between mother and child's fears
What at the factors of Modeling to get new behaviors
1. Who is the model? (expert? friendly?)
2. What the model does (is it clear?)
3. What happens to the model? (punished? rewarded?)
What are the Fundamentals of CBT?
It doesn't matter what happens to you it's what you THINK about what happens to you
1. Humans respond to cognitive representations of the environment
2. Cognitive representations are related to the process of learning
3. Most human learning is cognitively mediated
4. Thoughts, feelings and behaviors are interactive
What % of psychotropic drugs are given to women?
% of surgical procedures?
Who has the highest death rates by sex and race?
Highest: Black Male
Second: White Male
Third: Black Female
Lowest: White Female
How many males are conceived for every 100 females?
What are some possible explanations for the life expectancy advantage of females?
1. Women are biologically advantages:
2. Differences in lifestyle:
-Homicide rates 4:1 male:female
-Suicide 2:1 male:female
-Males at increased risk for heart disease/cancer/liver disease etc...
3. Lack of testosterone
4. Workload: women have a higher workload
What is most stressful to women?
Martial conflict (can triple risk for second heart attack in women)
work stress and living alone had no effect
Which neurotransmitter is always on in women?
What are the Second 3 differences between Freudian Theory and Radical Behaviorism?
4. Freudian: Believes that symptomatology is determined by defence mechanisms
Radical Behaviorism: Believes that symptomatology is determined by individual differences in conditionability and accidental environmental circumstances
5. Freudian: All treatment of neurotic disorders must be historically based
Radical Behaviorism: All treatment of neurotic disorders is concerned with habits existing at present
6. Freudian: Cures are achieved by underlying (unconscious) dynamics
Radical Behaviorism: Cures are achieved by treating the symptom itself
What are the Third 3 differences between Freudian Theory and Radical Behaviorism?
7. Freudian: Interpretations of symptoms, dreams, acts, etc. is an important element of treatment
Radical Behaviorism: Interpretation is irrelevant
8. Freudian: Symptomatic treatment leads to the elaboration of new symptoms
Radical Behaviorism: Symptomatic treatment leads to permanent recovery
9. Freudian: Transference relations are essential
Radical Behaviorism: Personal relations are not essential