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When was talking with a trusted individual as a treatment for depression first suggested?



What was depression seen as during the Hellenic Age?

Imbalance in body humors


What was depression seen as during the Medieval Ages?

Demonic possesion


What 4 factors is depression made of?
What are the 4 symptom groups of depression?
Which is Central to depression?

1. Physical
2. Affective (Central)
3. Cognitive
4. Motivational


What is the Prevalence of depression?
What % go untreated?

lifetime risk:
Female: 10% - 25%
Male: 5% - 12%

point prevalence
Female: 5% - 9%
Male: 2% - 3%

80% go untreated


What is the Average duration of a first episode of depression?

6 to 9 months if untreated
natural remission is common


How does the length of depressive episodes vary?

2 weeks to several years


What are re rates of recurrence of depression? if you've had 1 episode? 2? 3?

1 episode: 50-60% chance of having a 2nd

2 episodes 70% chance of having a 3rd

3 episodes: 90% chance of having a 4th


Bipolar is?

Depression + Mania


Cyclothymic is?

Dysthymic + Hypo Manic
(Bipolar lite)


What is the less severe from of bipolar called?



List 4 Depressive disorders

1. Major Depressive Disorder
2. Persistent Depressive Disorder
3. Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder
4. Substance/medication induced depressive disorder


What is the DSM-V criteria for Major Depressive Disorder?

at least 5

At least one:
- Depressed Mood
- Loss of interest or pleasure

the rest:
1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day as indicated by subjective report (feels sad, empty, hopeless) or observation made by others ( appears tearful)
2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all activities
3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite
4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive and inappropriate guilt nearly every day
8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness nearly every day
9. Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide


What are the conditions for being diagnosed with MDD?

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
C. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or to another medical condition
D. Not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder or other schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders
E. There has never been a manic episode or a hypomanic episode


What is the Diagnostic Criteria for a Manic Episode

During a 1 week period at least 3 of the following-
1. Inflated self-esteem,
2. Decreased need for sleep,
3. More talkative,
4. flight of ideas,
5. distractibility,
6. increase in goal directed activity
7. excessive involvement in pleasurable activities.

Results in Marked Impairment