Flashcards in Lecture 18 Deck (27):
Why was the concept of stress developed?
Because of an experiment that was done to test the effect of a drug on rats developing ulcers and the control rats who were injected with as saline solution also developed ulcers
Describe the vicious circle of stress
Physical health decline
Low job satisfaction
Low financial return ->
Stress -> start over
What were the findings of stress inoculation in young monkeys?
What could this be a model of?
took young monkeys away from their mothers out of their cages next to a strange troop of monkeys. They became agitated and their cortisol levels increased.
Exploration of familiar objects (no difference from control)
Exploration of new objects were better at exploring, quick to explore, ate better
The monkeys not stress inoculated could be a model of kids who are overprotected.
What is the Holmes and Ray scale?
one of the first stress scales
Gave scores to various events that occurred on one's life and calculated the possibility that someone might develop a major illness
change = stressful
over 300 pts 70% of developing a major illness
150 - 300 pts 50% of developing a major illness
What are the problems with the Holmes and Ray Scale?
1. Nature of the events don't apply to everyone (very much based on middle age events)
2. Doesn't ask how a person reacts to the events
3. Doesn't tell us how the events impact health
4. Focuses only on change (but boredom is also stressful)
What was Richard Lazarus's model of stress? what are some problems with it?
Lists Hassles vs. Uplifts
Problem: what you're going to feel good and bad about is relative to age and gender
What are the main hassles for the early 20's age group?
1. Wasting time
2. Meeting high standards
3. Being lonely
What are the main uplifts for the early 20's age group?
1. Having fun
What are three main mediators between stressor and outcome?
1. Social Situation
2. Coping mechanisms
After a heart attack what are the chances of death if: living alone? if living with a significant other?
2. 1/5 (regardless of quality of relationship
Following a trauma, what is a woman's chance of developing depression if she is living alone? in a confiding relationship?
What prevented rat's who were receiving shocks from getting ulcers?
If they had a piece of wood to bite down on
What happens to immune system of baboons after they fight?
If their status improved: no negative effect on immune system
If their status did not change: negative effect on immune system
The outcome determined reaction
Give an example of how the degree of perceived control can help humans cope with stress?
people wearing headphones with a terrible noise -> blood pressure would increase
if given a button and told it could turn off the noise their blood pressure didn't increase, even if they never used to button
What happens with severe undernutrition?
-Trouble concentrating/memory problems
What happens when you have a niacin (vitamin B) deficiency?
Pellagra: indistinguishable from schizophrenia
Name types of Environmental Stress
2. Reduced environmental stimulation
3. Situations that threaten survival
Do nothing sickness
What are the short and long term effects of natural Disasters?
short: overwhelmed, anxiety GI upsets
long: depression, apathy, physical effects, premature ageing
What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? section A
A. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, in one or more of the following ways:
1. Direct experience
2. Witnessing in person
3. Learning the event occurred to someone close to you
4. Repeated exposure to details
What is the prevalence of PTSD?
more common in people who were previously married
What are the various ways of reacting to trauma?
What type of treatment works best for PTSD? what aspect of it is most important?
What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section B
B. One or more of the following symptoms:
1. Recurrent, involuntary, distressing memories of the event
2. Recurrent distressing event dreams
3. Dissociative reactions (flashbacks)
4. Physiological reactions to cues
(must occur over at least a 1 month period)
What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section C
C. Persistent avoidance of the event stimuli (almost always)
1. Effort to avoid memories
2. Effort to avoid reminders of the thoughts etc. of the event
What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section D
D. Negative Alterations in cognition and mood re event
1. Inability to remember important aspects of the event
2. Negative beliefs about oneself
3. Distorted cognitions about the event
4. Persistent negative emotional state
5. Diminished interests
6. Feelings of detachment
7. Lack of positive emotions