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Why was the concept of stress developed?

Because of an experiment that was done to test the effect of a drug on rats developing ulcers and the control rats who were injected with as saline solution also developed ulcers


Describe the vicious circle of stress

Physical health decline
Psychological strain
Decreased Motivation->
Low job satisfaction
Decreased productivity
Low financial return ->
Stress -> start over


What were the findings of stress inoculation in young monkeys?

What could this be a model of?

took young monkeys away from their mothers out of their cages next to a strange troop of monkeys. They became agitated and their cortisol levels increased.

Then tested:
Exploration of familiar objects (no difference from control)
Exploration of new objects were better at exploring, quick to explore, ate better

The monkeys not stress inoculated could be a model of kids who are overprotected.


What is the Holmes and Ray scale?

one of the first stress scales

Gave scores to various events that occurred on one's life and calculated the possibility that someone might develop a major illness

change = stressful

over 300 pts 70% of developing a major illness
150 - 300 pts 50% of developing a major illness


What are the problems with the Holmes and Ray Scale?

1. Nature of the events don't apply to everyone (very much based on middle age events)
2. Doesn't ask how a person reacts to the events
3. Doesn't tell us how the events impact health
4. Focuses only on change (but boredom is also stressful)


What was Richard Lazarus's model of stress? what are some problems with it?

Lists Hassles vs. Uplifts

Problem: what you're going to feel good and bad about is relative to age and gender


What are the main hassles for the early 20's age group?

1. Wasting time
2. Meeting high standards
3. Being lonely


What are the main uplifts for the early 20's age group?

1. Having fun
2. Laughing
3. Entertainment


What are three main mediators between stressor and outcome?

1. Social Situation
2. Coping mechanisms
3. Self-efficacy


After a heart attack what are the chances of death if: living alone? if living with a significant other?

1. 1/2
2. 1/5 (regardless of quality of relationship


Following a trauma, what is a woman's chance of developing depression if she is living alone? in a confiding relationship?

1. 40%
2. 4%


What prevented rat's who were receiving shocks from getting ulcers?

If they had a piece of wood to bite down on


What happens to immune system of baboons after they fight?

If their status improved: no negative effect on immune system

If their status did not change: negative effect on immune system

The outcome determined reaction


Give an example of how the degree of perceived control can help humans cope with stress?

people wearing headphones with a terrible noise -> blood pressure would increase
if given a button and told it could turn off the noise their blood pressure didn't increase, even if they never used to button


What happens with severe undernutrition?

Semistarvation Neurosis:
-Emotional Instability
-Trouble concentrating/memory problems


What happens when you have a niacin (vitamin B) deficiency?

Pellagra: indistinguishable from schizophrenia


Name types of Environmental Stress

1. Undernutrition
2. Reduced environmental stimulation
3. Situations that threaten survival


Do nothing sickness

Burabura (PTSD)


What are the short and long term effects of natural Disasters?

short: overwhelmed, anxiety GI upsets
long: depression, apathy, physical effects, premature ageing


What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? section A

A. Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence, in one or more of the following ways:
1. Direct experience
2. Witnessing in person
3. Learning the event occurred to someone close to you
4. Repeated exposure to details


What is the prevalence of PTSD?

Men: 5%
Women: 10%

more common in people who were previously married


What are the various ways of reacting to trauma?

1. Resilience
2. Recovery
3. Delayed
4. Chronic


What type of treatment works best for PTSD? what aspect of it is most important?



What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section B

B. One or more of the following symptoms:
1. Recurrent, involuntary, distressing memories of the event
2. Recurrent distressing event dreams
3. Dissociative reactions (flashbacks)
4. Physiological reactions to cues
(must occur over at least a 1 month period)


What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section C

C. Persistent avoidance of the event stimuli (almost always)
1. Effort to avoid memories
2. Effort to avoid reminders of the thoughts etc. of the event


What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section D

D. Negative Alterations in cognition and mood re event
1. Inability to remember important aspects of the event
2. Negative beliefs about oneself
3. Distorted cognitions about the event
4. Persistent negative emotional state
5. Diminished interests
6. Feelings of detachment
7. Lack of positive emotions


What is the DSM-V definition of PTSD? Section E

E. Alterations arousal (may)
1. Irritable behavior
2. Reckless self destructive behavior
3. Hypervigilance
4. Startle response
5. Problems with concentration
6. Sleep disturbance