Flashcards in Lecture 12 Deck (20):
What is present in the puffer fish that makes it poisonous? What effect does it have?
It slows physiological functioning to the point where you appear to be dead
What is water intoxication?
Problems with the ADH diuretic hormone creates a water imbalance that causes psychosis
How is water intoxication related to schizophrenia?
See lecture recording when posted for % of schizophrenics with the abnormal ADH diuretic hormone.
Hospital surveyed: 18% of deaths of schizophrenic's under 50 caused by water intoxication
What type of neurotransmitter is Dopamine? What % of that type of neurotransmitter does dopamine account for?
Name two other neurotransmitters that are the same type.
it's a Catecholamine and accounts for 80% of the brains catecholamine
Which two areas of the brain produce Dopamine? Which pathways do they project to? Where do those pathways project to?
1. Ventral Tegmental Area -> mesolimbic dopamine system -> frontal lobes
2. Substantia Nigra -> nigrostriatal projection -> Striatum or areas of the limbic system
What is the theory of how dopamine relates to schizophrenia?
There is too much stimulation within the limbic system and not enough in the frontal lobes: Basic functioning of limbic system making demands and producing ideas that can't be controlled by frontal lobe functioning
How many receptors are there for Dopamine? What two classes do they fall into?
What are they called?
There are 5
D1 and D5 affect adenylate cyclase and is involved in cell regulation more than the other class
D2, D3 and D4 are where the anti-psychotic drugs have their binding effects
What do you find about the receptors in the brain of a schizophrenic who has never been treated with drugs?
What is the old line of antipsychotic drugs called? which receptor does it block?
What are the newer antipsychotic drugs called? Which receptor do they block?
what are the precursors to Dopamine?
phenylalanine then tyrosine
What is the primary reason given for deinstitutionalization?
The advent of phenothiazine drugs like Chlorpromazine
What does Chlorpromazine do?
1. Decrease in positive symptoms
2. Produced extrapyramidal symptoms
What are extrapyramidal symptoms?
Symptoms that occur when there is a lack of dopamine in the brain
Muscle disorders, the exact kind of things you would see in someone with Parkinson's
Why study Biochemistry?
2. The brain functions according to Biochemistry (neurotransmitters)
3. Most disorders are treated with pharmacology which manipulates chemical systems
4. Metabolic Factors: certain chemicals can produce a toxic effect on the brain
What is Fugu?
The poisonous japanese puffer fish
How do Cocaine and Ritalin affect dopamine? Amphetamines?
Cocaine + Ritalin: block reuptake
Amphetamine: prevent degredation
Which disorders are most frequently comorbid with ADHD
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Give evidence of ADHD's relation to Dopamine (give 3)
1. Ritalin is effective in treating ADHD (stimulant that affects dopamine)
2. Animal Models: lesion studies of dopamine projections which decrease dopamine cause ADHD like behavior in the animals
3. Imagining studies show deficits in DA rich areas of the brain