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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (27):
1

Nervous System

Composed of 2 parts: CNS, PNS

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Central Nervous System

2 Parts: Brain & Spinal Cord,
The part of the nervous system that is responsible for mental processes
Controls perception and discrimination of sensory stimuli

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Peripheral Nervous System

Has 2 Functional Systems: Somatic & Autonomic Nervous Systems

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Somatic Nervous System

Controls conscious sensory perception and volitional movement
2 Main Parts:
Cranial Nerves & Spinal Nerves

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Autonomic Nervous System

Controls glands and the visceral system (involuntary)
2 Main Systems:
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Systems

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Sympathetic System

Expends Energy Ex. Fight/Flight

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Parasympathetic System

Conserves Energy - brings us back to normal levels after fight/flight.

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Protections for the CNS

Skull/Vertebral Column, Meninges, & Cerebrospinal Fluid

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Cranial Vault

The space in the skull in which the brain sits

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Foramen Magnum

The hole at the base of the skull that allows the spinal column to attach to the skull.

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Vertebral Column

33 Bones:
Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacral - 5
Coccygeal - 4

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Intervertebral Foramena

Hole in the vertebra that allows the nerves to pass through

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Mininges

Made up of 3 Membranes:
Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Pia Mater

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Dura Mater

Outermost membrane of the meninges
Very tough, fibrous membrane that lines the inner surface of the skull and spinal column
Provides protective covering for the CNS

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Epidural/Extradural Hemorrhage

Bleeding on top of the dura mater

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Hematoma

The resulting accumulation of blood from an epidural/extradural hemorrhage

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Dural Reflection

The inner layer folds of the dura mater

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Falx Cerebri

The dural reflection that falls between the 2 hemispheres

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Tentorium Cerebelli

The dural reflection that runs between the cerebra hemispheres and the cerebellum

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Falx Cerebelli

Separates the "hemispheres" of the cerebellum

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Arachnoid

Middle membrane of the meninges
Contains no blood vessels
Doesn't conform to the contours of the brain; no reflections

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Subarachnoid Space

The spaces between the arachnoid and the pia mater that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid

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Subarachnoid Cistern

The number of large cavities between the arachnoid and the pia mater;
Filled with cerebrospinal fluid

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Pia Mater

The innermost membrane of the meninges
Inner surface does NOT have blood vessels, but the outer surface does

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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

When the blood vessels in the outer surface of the pia mater are damaged and bleed.

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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

A watery fluid that bathes the entire CNS
Allows the brain to float in the skull

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The Brain (overview)

Divided into 2 parts called hemispheres that are connected by the corpus collosum
Avg. human brain weighs about 3 lbs
Composed of approx. ¾ water and ¼ neurons, glial cells, and connective tissue
For DESCRIPTIVE PURPOSES the brain is divided into different parts: Cerebrum/Cortex, Diencephalon, and Brain Stem.