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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (125):
1

Central Nervous System

Consists of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS integrates all incoming and outgoing information and generates appropriate responses.

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Cerebral Cortex

A sheet of six-layered grey matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres.

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Neuroembryology

Deals with the growth of the nervous system during the embryonic periods of development extending from conception to 7 weeks.

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Neuroanatomy

They study of the structural framework of the nervous system, consisting of nerve cells (neurons) and their tracts (fibers).

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Neurology

Diagnosis and treatment of nervous system disorders.

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Neuropathology

Study of characteristics and origins of diseases and their effects on the nervous system.

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Neurophysiology

Study of chemical, electrical, and metabolic functions of the nervous system.

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Neuroradiology

Imaging techniques for differentiating pathologic tissue of central nervous system; radiation therapy for nervous system tumors is a subspecialty.

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Neurosurgery

Surgical removal of dysfunctioning structures that impair the functions of the nervous system.

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Nervous System

Collectively refers to the brain, spinal cord, nerves (cranial and spinal), and autonomic ganglia that maintain the vital functions of the body in response to internal and external stimuli.

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Bilateral

Having or relating to two sides; affecting both sides

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Contralateral

Having or relating to two sides; affecting both sides

Opposite sides

Must take a referent, it cannot occur on its own

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Critical Period

The period when an experience is most rewarding and effective in influencing the brain's potential.

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Ipsilateral

Belonging to or occurring on the same side of the body.

Must take a referent, it cannot occur on its own.
Ex. Can’t say “my right arm is ipsilateral” you can say “my right arm is ipsilateral to my right leg”

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Homunculus

Representation of the body in the sensorimotor cortex.

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Laterality

Hemispheric superiority for serving language.

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Neuroplasticity

The brain's ability to change as a result of experience; also includes the brain's ability to reorganize and gradually modify tissue functions when faced with pathologies.

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Planum temporale

Area on the superior temporal lob surface to Heschl gyri. It is larger in the left temporal lobe and is associated with cerebral dominance.

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Cerebrum

The cerebral hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum.

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Organizational Principles of the Brain

1. Interconnectivity in the brain
2. Centrality of CNS
3. Hierarchy of neuraxial organizations
4. Laterality of brain organization
5. Functional networking
6. Topographical representation
7. Plasticity of the brain
8. Culturally neutral brain

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Laterality of Brain Organization

1. Bilateral anatomic symmetry
2. Unilateral functional differences
3. Contralateral sensorimotor control of the nervous system.

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Caudal

Toward the tail

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Forebrain

Brain (telencephalon and diencephalon) region that is derived from the rostral embryonic brain.

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Ventral

2 Different things, depends on whether you’re referring to the spinal cord or brain.

When you’re referring to the spinal cord it means toward the belly.

When referring the brain it means toward the bottom of the brain.

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Dorsal

2 Different things, depends on whether you’re referring to the spinal cord or brain.
When you’re referring to the spinal cord it means toward the back.
When you’re referring to the brain it means toward the top.

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Rostral

Toward the nose

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Abduction

Limb is moved away from the central axis of the body.

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Adduction

Limb is moved toward the central axis of the body.

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Akinesia

A lack of voluntary movement

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Bradykinesia

Slowness of movement

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Coronal

A coronal plane is a vertical section made perpendicular to the sagittal section, dividing the brain into front and back parts.

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Distal

Defined by its relation to the CNS; identifies the structures farther from the same anatomic site of reference.

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Dyskinesia

Any involuntary and abnormal movement, but is specially used to mark the restless and squirming movements that appear as a result of treatment of Parkinson.

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Dystonia

Any atypical posture with abnormally sustained muscle contraction.

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Extension

The straightening movement of a limb.

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Flexion

The bending movement of a limb.

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Lateral

Structures away from the midline.

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Midsagittal

Vertical division into two equal parts.

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Myoclonus

A sudden and momentary contraction of one or a group of muscles.

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Pronation

The movement that turns the palm downward (or lying on the belly)

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Proximal

Defined by its relation to the CNS; refers to structures relatively close to a specific anatomic site of reference.

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Sagittal

A sagittal plane is a vertical cut that passes longitudinally and divides the brain into left and right portions.

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Supination

The action that turns the palm upward (lying on the back).

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Transverse

A transverse plane is a crosscut at a right angle to the longitudinal axis on a bend.

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Tremor

A repetitive movement secondary to alternate contraction of opposing muscles. Two types: resting and action. Resting tremor (associated with Parkinson disease) is prominent when the body is at rest against gravity. Action tremor (associated with cerebrallar pathology) is apparent only during voluntary muscle contractions.

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Anterior

2 Different things, depends on whether you’re referring to the spinal cord or brain.
When you’re referring to the spinal cord it means toward the belly
When you’re referring to the brain it means toward the front/face

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Posterior

2 Different things, depends on whether you’re referring to the spinal cord or brain.
When you’re referring to the spinal cord it means toward the back
When you’re referring to the brain it means toward the back of the head

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Inferior

2 Different things, depends on whether you’re referring to the spinal cord or brain.
When you’re referring to the spinal cord it means toward the belly
When you’re referring to the brain it means toward the bottom of the brain

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Decussation

Crossing over to the opposite side
Ex. If a nerve goes from the right hemisphere to the left hemisphere it decussates

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Fasciculus

A bundle

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Funiculus

A cord

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Lemniscus

A ribbon

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Neuroanatomy

Oldest of the neurosciences
Classic works:

Franz Gall, Phrenology
-Assigned various functions to specific parts of the brain aka LOCALIZATION
-Gall assigned the areas based on people he knew and their specific skull shapes
Ex. Friends that were very eloquent happened to have protruding brows

19th-20th Centuries:

Golgi, Reticular Theory
-Developed a method in which the brain is stained in order to see it’s full extent
Allows us to stain specific structures while leaving nearby structures unstained
Based on this study, Golgi concluded that the cells of the nervous system were not separate entities
This idea is called the RETICULAR THEORY of the nervous system
Still in use today

Cajal, Neuron Doctrine
Studied Golgi’s work and improved on it
Showed that the cells of the brain are individual units, not a composite as Golgi had thought
This idea is called the Neuron Doctrine

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Neurology

Concerned with correlation of diseases of the nervous system with functional behavior

Famous Scholars associated with Neurology:

Paul Broca, 1861
Demonstrated that the inferior frontal gyrus is responsible for speech production

Karl Wernicke, 1874
Demonstrated that the posterior superior temporal gyrus specializes in speech reception

Wilder Penfield & Hughlings Jackson
The findings made by these scholars boosted the idea of localization greatly during their time
Most studies done at this time were based on the idea of localization
Made very intense case studies, then followed up after they died by looking at their brains
To this day, neurology uses localization

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Neurophysiology

Scholars in this field:

Sir Charles Sherrington
-Argued that the neurons in the nervous system make contacts with each other and with muscles
-Argued that sensory information is transmitted in the nervous system by means of these contacts
-Named these contacts synapse
-Current knowledge of the brain tells us that synapses are not contacts/connections, but instead approximations
-There is a small gap between the neurons

Gustav Fritz & Edward Hitzig
1870
Provided the first evidence of the motor cortex

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Psychology

Another area of neuroscience that added to the debate of localization

Notable figure:

Carl Lashley
-In one experiment, he systematically removed brain tissues from rats that were trained to run a maze
-Tested the validity of localization
-Observed that the removal of no portion of the brain inhibited the rats from running the maze
-No specific area of the brain can be said to be directly related to the running of a maze
-Observed that the bigger the size of the tissues removed the more it affected the rats’ ability to run the maze
-This suggests that the brain works as an integrated whole
-It is a network of connections and interconnections
-These findings had a strong impact on localization at that time
Maybe localization was incorrect

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Neurochemistry

The newest branch of the neurosciences

Deals with the study of chemicals in the nervous system and drugs that influence it

Some of the specific chemicals included
Seratonen
Neurotransmitters

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Hypo-

Below

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Peri-

Around or next to

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Acute (symptoms)

Evlove over minutes to hours and are life threatening

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Autonomic Nervous System

Division of the peripheral nervous system with sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. Works subconsciously and innervates blood vessels, internal organs, and glands.

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Cardiac (muscles)

Contain striated fibers, but are not under voluntary control. They are controlled by the cardiovascular relaxes of the ANS.

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Chronic (symptoms)

Develop over months to years and may require a long-term care

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Convolution

AKA: Gyrus
Elevations forming the surface of the cerebral hemispheres

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Commissure

A band of fibers connecting part of the brain or spinal cord on one side with the same structures on the opposite side of the midline.

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Fissure

AKA: Sulcus
Groove region bordering the gyro on the brain surface

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Gyrus

AKA: Convolutions
Elevated cortical regions between sulci and fissures

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Hemiplegia

Paralysis of both the upper and the lower limbs of one side

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Inter-

Between

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Intra-

Within

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Monoplegia

Paralysis of either an upper or a lower limb

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Opercular

The margins of the cerebral convolutions serving as a cover.

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Paraplegia

Paralysis of both lower limbs

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Persistent (symptoms)

Symptoms that do not fully resolve and are of three types:

Static/Stationary: symptoms that reach a maximum level of severity and don't change
Improving: Symptoms that reach a maximum severity and then gradually begin to resolve
Progressive:Symptoms that continue to worsen.

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Postsynaptic

After the synaptic cleft

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Presynaptic

Before the synaptic cleft

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Quadriplegia

Paralysis pattern involving all 4 limbs

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Skeletal (muscles)

Striated fibers and are under volitional control

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Smooth (muscles)

Non-striated fibers and are considered involuntary

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Somatic

Relating to structures derived from a series of mesodermal somites, including skeletal muscles, bones, and dermis.

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Subacute (symptoms)

Develop over days to week and fall between the acute and then chronic classifications

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Sulcus

AKA: Fissure
Includes the groove or furrow markings on the cortical surface.

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Transient (symptoms)

Are short in duration and resolve completely

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Triplegia

Paralysis of three limbs

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Viscera

Internal organs of the ventral body cavity

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Appendicular

Relates to the limbs, which are attached to the axial structures.

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Axon

Neuronal process capable of conducting neuronal impulses to other cell bodies.

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Brachium

An armlike fiber bundle.

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Cerebellum


Participates in the coordination of skilled movements and the regulation of equilibrium.

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Colliculus

A small prominence of nervous system tissue.

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Dendrite

Cellular processes that receive impulses from other cells.

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Fasciculus

A bundle of nerve fibers that originate from a common source, terminate at a common point, and mediate a common function.

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Ganglion

Cluster of cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system

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Glial Cells

Support nerve cell function:
-by providing structural support and insulating framework around the nerve cells by:
-by contributing to the neuronal metabolism
-by regulating the ionic balance in the extracellular fluid of the CNS
-by participating in the repair of damaged nerve cells.

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Gray Matter

Refers to the gross appearance of the cells of the brain, which consists of nerve cells, supporting glia cells, and many unmyelinated fibers.

Represents only 10% of the brain cells

The neurons are concentrated in the cerebral cortex as layers and in the sub cortex as nuclei.

The cells appear gray in the absence of myelin.

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Nerve

A bundle of axons

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Soma

Cell body that contains the cytoplasm with standard but important cellular organelles, which are needed for cellular metabolism and keep the cell alive and functional.

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Synapse

Includes the boutons, synaptic cleft, and receptor sites of the next nerve cell.

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White Matter

Made of nerve fibers that form tracts and carry info from one brain site to another

It is white because of the myelin lipid substance surrounding many of the axons.

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Brainstem

The Medulla, Midbrain, and Pons.

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Cerebrum

(Cerebral hemispheres) Serves higher mental functions (cognition, language, and memory); integrates sensorimotor functions and perceptual experiences.

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Hypothalamus

Part of the Diencephalon
Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, hormonal secretions, emotional behavior, and sexual responses.
Controls the activities of the autonomic nervous system

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Medulla

Part of Brainstem
Contains cranial nerve nuclei
Regulates respiration, phonation, heartbeat, and blood pressure

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Midbrain

Part of Brainstem
Mediates auditory and visual reflexes, regulates cortical arousal, houses cranial nerve nuclei

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Pons

Part of Brainstem
Contains cranial nerve nuclei and sensory moto-regulating fibers

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Thalamus

Part of the Diencephalon
Channels sensorimotor info to cortex, participates in cortex-mediated functions, regulates crude awareness of sensation.

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Afferent

Axonal bundles mediating bodily perceived sensations of pain, touch, and temperature toward the central nervous system

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Efferent

Axonal fibers that mediate nerve impulses away from the CNS and cell body.

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General

A type of cell sued by the nervous system to process information.
General information originates from the surface of the body and is processed by nonspecific and general receptors.
Ex. Pain and temperature

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Special

A type of cell sued by the nervous system to process information.
Special information is mediated by the specialized receptors to specialized functionally committed cells in the nervous system.
Ex. Vision, smell, taste, and audition.

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Somatic

Somatic refers to striated skeletal muscles that are embryologically derived from somites.

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Visceral

Non-striated muscles are concerned with vegetative tasks and relate to the internal vial body organs involved in the respiratory, vascular, and digestive systems controlled by the ANS.

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Anatomic Orientation

The left brain structures are on the left side and the right brain structures are on the right. Identical to the clinician.

114

Archicortex

One of two regions of the brain with fewer than six layers.
Contains only three cellular layers and includes structures like hippocampus, amygdala, and sputum which are important in memory consolidation and instinctual reflexes that are essential for survival.

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Brodmann Area

Brodmann, 1909, created a cytoarchitectural map with approximately 47 regions.

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Clinical Orientation

The left brain structures are on the right, and the right brain structures are on the left. Opposite of the clinician.

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Hippocampus

Limbic structure bordering the lateral ventricle inferior horns in the temporal lobe. Thought to be related to the consolidation of memory.

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Isocortex

AKA: Neocortex
One of the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex
Essential for serving higher mental (cognition and language) and sensorimotor functions.

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Lenticular

Having to do with a lens-like shape.

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Neocortex

AKA: Isocortex
One of the 6 layers of the cerebral cortex
Essential for serving higher mental (cognition and language) and sensorimotor functions.

121

Paleocortex

One of two regions of the brain with fewer than six layers.
Containing 3-5 layers, it includes the structures like olfactory-sensory-cortex and periamygdaloid cortex that serve emotional behavior.

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Peduncle

The fiber bundles connecting the cerebellum to the brainstem

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Rigidity

Increased muscle tone, marked by the constant resistance present throughout the passive limb movement.

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Spasticity

An increased muscle tone where there is resistance to flexion but give way abruptly to allow further easy movement.

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Ventricles

Interconnected brain cavities that produce, store, and circulate the cerebrospinal fluid.