Lecture 15 (3/26) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15 (3/26) Deck (12):
1

Basal Ganglia

A collection of interconnected, anatomical structures that are found below the cortex

Functionally the basal ganglia is involved in the processing of complex movement patterns and filters other signals that are going to the motor cortex

Also involved in:
Processing learning and memory
Processing intonation and prosodic info

2

Caudate Nucleus

A structure of the basal ganglia

The most anterior of the basal ganglia

Has a large head that is located in front of the thalamus and a long tail that curves/arches back over the thalamus

3

Putamen

A structure of the basal ganglia

Located lateral to the head of the caudate

Separated from the caudate by the internal capsule

4

Globus Pallidus

A structure of the basal ganglia

Lies medially to the putamen

5

Substantia Niagra

A structure of the basal ganglia

A nucleus that is found in the midbrain of the mesencephalon

Releases dopamine

Damage to this nucleus causes Parkinson's disease

6

Subthalamic Nucleus

A structure of the basal ganglia

Lies below the thalamus and above the anterior portion of the substantial niagra

7

Damage to the Basal Ganglia

Affects communication, specifically speech production

Disorders:
Parkinson's disease
Huntington's disease
Hemiballismus

8

Parkinson's disease

Results from biochemical changes in the substantial niagra

Symptoms include:
Shaking of the hand/tremor of the limbs
Pill-rolling tremor
Muscular rigidity
Difficulty walking
Facial muscles show us masked faces
Overall speech shows a type of dysarthria known hypo kinetic dysarthria

9

Hypokinetic Dysarthria

A type of dysarthria that includes:

Breathy voice
Imprecise consonant articulation
Hypernasality
mono-pitch

10

Huntington's disease

A genetically transmitted disease

Pathology lies in the caudate nucleus

Symptoms:
Choreiform movements of the face and upper extremities - patient appears restless
Patient is in constant movement - movements are fragmentary, random, and rapid
After several years of the disease, mental deterioration/dementia can occur

11

Hyperkinetic Dysarthria

Characteristics:
Variable rate of speech
Imprecise consonant articulation
Irregular articulatory breakdown
Strained, harsh voice quality
Inability to sustain phonation

12

Hemiballismus

Disease where the pathology is located in the subthalmic nucleus
Involves wild movement