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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (28):
1

Brain - General Info

Divided into 2 hemispheres, right and left
Avg human brain weighs 3 lbs
88% water, 12% neurons, glial cells, and connective tissue

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Corpus Callosum

Band of fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain

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Descriptive divisions of the brain

Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Brain Stem
Cerebellum

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Cerebrum

What you see from the outside of the brain

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Convolutions

Ridges and valleys on the surface of the brain

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Gyri/Gyrus

The ridges on the brain's surface

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Sulci/Sulcus

The valleys on the brain's surface

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Fissures

Deep sulcus

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Superior Longitudinal Fissure/Interhemispheric Fissure

The deepest and longest of the fissures; runs between the two hemispheres

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Lateral/Sylvian Fissure

The fissure on the lateral surface of the brain

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Central/Rolandic Fissure

Superior to lateral fissure

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Transverse Fissure

Separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum

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Frontal Lobe (Location)

The lower boundary of the frontal lobe is the lateral fissure, the upper boundary of the frontal lobe is the central fissure.

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Frontal Lobe (Structural Overview)

Primary Motor Cortex/Precentral Gyrus
Olfactory Tract & Olfactory Bulb
Broca's Area

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Primary Motor Cortex/Precentral Gyrus

A structure in the frontal lobe

Involved in the voluntary control of skilled movement of muscles that are contralateral

Injury to this area will cause paralysis to a place on the body contralateral to the site of injury

The body parts are disproportionally represented in the primary motor cortex (some parts of the body have a lot of the cortex devoted to them)

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Homunculus

The disproportionate representation of body parts in the primary motor cortex

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Olfactory Tract & Olfactory Bulb

Allows us to smell
Inferior side of the brain, two white lines with bulbs at the end, one in each hemisphere

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Broca's Area

Only on the left hemisphere

Responsible for speech production

Formed by 3 Structures:
Pars Triangularis
Pars Orbitalis
Pars Opercularis

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Parietal Lobe (Overview)

Shares boundaries with all other lobes

Controls perception, visual spacial information, touch, and body awareness

Injury to this area causes Tactile Agnosia/Astereognosis and Visual Spacial Impairment

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Parietal Lobe Structures

Postcentral Gyrus/Somatosensory Cortex

Angular Gyrus

Supramarginal Gyrus

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Tactile Agnosia/Astereognosis

Caused by injury to the parietal lobe

A disorder in which the patient is unable to recognize objects by touch even though they have intact ability for tactile perception

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Visual Spacial Impairment

Caused by injury to the parietal lobe

A disorder in which the patient is unable to copy geometrical figures, has difficulty discriminating complex visual stimuli

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Postcentral Gyrus/Somatosensory Cortex

Processes sensory (somesthetic = skins, tendons, and joints) information contralaterally

Ex. Pain, temperature, touch, and pressure

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Angular Gyrus & Supramarginal Gyrus

Structures important for language reception and object recognition; facilitate integration of information related to hearing, vision, and touch

Damage to these areas in the left hemisphere lead to issues in language reception and object recognition

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Temporal Lobe (Structural Overview)

3 Primary Gyri we need to know:

Inferior Temporal Gyrus
Middle Temporal Gyrus
Superior Temporal Gyrus (Left Temporal Hemisphere)

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Left Temporal Lobe

involved in verbal sound comprehension (written and spoken language)

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Right Temporal Lobe

Right temporal lobe is involved in nonverbal language comprehension (Sounds and music)

Right temporal lobe also processes complex visual stimuli

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Primary Gyri of the Temporal Lobe

Inferior Temporal Gyrus

Middle Temporal Gyrus

Superior Temporal Gyrus (Left Temporal Hemisphere)
the posterior portion of this is responsible for language comprehension
AKA Wernicke’s Area AKA Superior, posterior temporal gyrus

Heschl’s Gyrus or Transverse Temporal Gyrus or Primary auditory cortex

Responsible for audition/hearing
Receives input from each ear from both hemispheres