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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (20):
1

Functional groups?

chemical groups found in macromolecules that affect the molecular function and are directly involved in their chemical rxns

2

name all functional groups and properties

Hydroxyl (OH - alcohol) polar and hydrogen bond with water
Carbonyl (ketone within and aldehyde)
Carboxyl (carboxylic acid) like acid donate h+ polar
Amino group (amines) like a base pick up h+
Sulfhydryl (SH- thiols) stabilize protein structure, cysteines,
Phosphate group (produce energy)
methyl group (CH3) hydrophobic

3

What is a structural isomer?

same molecular formula but have different connectivities

4

molecule made up of several similar subunits

polymer

5

subunit of a polymer

monomer

6

structural protein found in hair and nails

keratin

7

humans can synthesize ____ on 20 amino acids, the ___ we cannot synthesize are called __________

11, 9, essential

8

structure of amino acid

amino group, carboxylic acid and R group (side chain)

9

dehyration reaction

removing water to form a polymer (synthesis)

10

hydrolysis reaction

use water to break a bond (recover monomer from polymer)

11

Primary structure

the sequence of amino acids found within the protein

12

bond between each amino acid

polypeptide bond

13

Secondary structure

the amino acid backbones (not hte R group) interactions

14

result of secondary structure

alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets

15

Tertiary structures

final globular structure of the protein which determines the function.

16

interactions between R group

hydrogen bonds (polar)
disulfide bridge (cysteine)
ionic bonds (charged)
van der Wall and hydrophobic exclusions (non polar)

17

Quaternary structure

some protein requires several individual polypeptide to function completely

18

denaturationn

lost of structure = lost of function

19

patterns present in proteins

motifs

20

regions of large proteins

domains