Flashcards in Lecture 23 Deck (17):
How can a gene of interest can be identified?
with a nucleic acid probe having a sequence complementary to gene
what is this process called?
nucleic acid hybridization, www.youtube.com/watch?v=76eKnmCtCTU
How does in situ hybridization analysis works?
it uses fluorescent dyes attached to probes to identify location of specific mRNAs in intact organism
What is southern blot?
the method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples
How does southern blot function?
it combines transfer of electrophoresis separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and sunsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization
what is cDNA?
complementary DNA is DNA made in vitro using mRNA as a template for the first strand. Because the mRNA contains only exons, the resulting double-stranded cDNA carries the complete coding sequence of the gene but no introns. (p.437 in textbook)
What is the difference between cDNA and genomic DNA library?
Genomic DNA library contains DNA fragments that represent the entire genome of an organism, whereas cDNA http://www.majordifferences.com/2013/11/difference-between-genomic-and-cdna.html#.VVoZ7_lViko
What does DNA microarray assays do ?
it compares patterns of gene expression in different tissues, at different times, or under different conditions
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by PCR, a SNP shared by people _______ with disorder but not among ___________ people may find location of disease-causing gene
how do we clone plants?
single-cell culture, p.440
how do we clone animals?
nulcear transplantation, p .440
what is nuclear transplantation?
the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote is replaced with nucleus of a differentiated cell
what is a difficulty of nuclear transplantation?
older the donor nucleus, the lower percentage of normally developing organisms
what are the problems with animal cloning?
- only a small percentage of cloned embryos develop normally to birth
- many cloned animals exhibit defects
- many epigenetic changes must be reversed for genes to be expressed appropriately in early stages of development
what is a stem cell?
a relatively unspecialized cell that can reproduce itself indefinitely and differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types
where are stem cells isolated from?
early embryos at blastocyst stage