Lecture 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7 Deck (22):
1

what is metabolism?

The totality of the reactions that occur
throughout an organism

2

what is the the anabolism of the
cell?

Some reactions require energy to build up
molecules are endergonic.

3

what is catabolism?

reactions release energy by breaking
down molecules that is harvested for use in
anabolism.

4

what are autotrophs?

harvest energy from the sun and
convert it to useable chemical energy through
photosynthesis

5

what are heterotrophs?

use the organic compounds
produced by autotrophs as a source of energy

6

what is the main task of catabolism?

generate ATP

7

One of the main metabolites used by
organisms for the production of ATP is...

glucose

8

what are two possible mechanisms to get ATP?

Substrate level phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation

9

what is substrate level phosphorylation?

Substrate level phosphorylation occurs when
a phosphate group is transferred directly to
ADP in order to form ATP

10

The group of enzymes responsible for the
transfers of phosphate groups within the cell
is called...

kinase

11

What does kinase do?

kinases will transfer a phosphate
from ATP to a protein in order to change
protein structure

12

what this reaction is typical to?

These types of reaction are typical in cellular
signalling cascades, and control of enzymatic
activity

13

what does kinase in catabolism?

kinases will transfer a
phosphate to ADP, creating ATP

14

what does creatine phosphate?

helps increase the amount of
substrate level phosphorylation, and thus
amounts of ATP, found in the cell

15

what is oxidative phosphorylation?

ATP can be generated through the
ATPsynthase enzyme located in the inner
membrane of the mitochondria. It uses the
energy from a proton gradient to catalyze the
formation of ATP

16

Oxidative phsophorylation requires what reaction?

redox reactions

17

redox reactions are mainly
concerned with gaining and losing..

H atoms

18

oxidation reactions in biology are
typically known as...

dehydrogenation reactions

19

what is Nicotinamide adnosine dinucleotide (NAD+)

an essential coenzyme that plays a large role
in cellular redox reactions

20

Oxidative phosphorylation is
part of a larger process known
as...

cellular respiration

21

p.24?

yes

22

what is the electron transport chain?

The stepwise transfer of electrons, that
produces the energy required to make ATP is
part of a molecular machine