Lectures 4 & 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lectures 4 & 5 Deck (50):
1

Occipital Lobe (Structural Overview)

Calcarine Sulcus
Lingual Gyrus
Primary Visual Cortex

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Lingual Gyrus

Important for color perception

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Primary Visual Cortex

Area above and below the Calcarine Sulcus

Responsible for visual functioning

This area receives half of the visual input from each eye

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Motor vs. Sensory

Parts of the cortex are involved in either motor processing or sensory processing

There are some parts of the cortex that aren’t specifically sensory or motor processing
Called Association Areas

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Association Areas

Parts of the cortex that aren't specifically sensory or motor processing

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Limbic Lobe (General Overview)

Can be seen with a midsaggital

A strip of cortex that lies between the corpus callosum and the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes

Generally, the limbic lobe is believed to be the center of emotions; emotional processing

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Limbic Lobe (Structural Overview)

Amygdala
Hippocampus
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Uncus
Cingulate Gyrus
Fornix

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Hippocampus & Amygdala

Important for processing drives, emotions, and memory

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Fornix

Near the front tip of the corpus callosum

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Insula

Important for language communication

Patients with damage to the insula have been reported to have speech production problems such as apraxia of speech

Has both long and short gyro

Located near the transverse lateral gyri/Heschl's gyri

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Heschl's Gyri

Involved in hearing

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Secular Sulcus

The sulcus that surrounds the insula

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Other divisions of the brain

Forebrain
Midbrain
Hindbrain

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Forebrain

In a midsaggital view its the outer circumference

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Midbrain

The region that connects the pons

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Hindbrain

Includes everything not already included in the forebrain and midbrain, including parts of the brain stem and the cerebellum

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Diencephalon (General Info)

Means: between brain

Lies between 2 brain regions:
Cerebrum
Brainstem

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Diencephalon (Structural Overview)

4 Major Divisions:
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Subthalamus
Epithalamus

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Parahippocampal Gyrus

Posterior portion of the limbic system

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Limbic Lobe (Function)

Believed to be the center of emotions, emotional processing

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Thalamus (Function)

Largest component of the diencephalon

Serves as a relay station where sensory and motor information are processed before the information is sent to its destination

Receives input from many sources and projects to many parts of the cortex

Plays a role in: Consciousness, alertness, attention, audition, vision

Patients with thalamic lesions have language problems, specifically aphasia

22

Medial Geniculate Body

One of 2 main nuclei of the thalamus

Found on the posterior surface of the thalamus - looks like a swelling

Involved in auditory processing, forms part of the auditory pathway

Receives info from the inferior colliculus (another nuclei

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Lateral Geniculate Body

One of 2 main nuclei of the thalamus

Forms part of the visual pathway

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Hypothalamus (General)

Lies below the thalamus

Forms a small part of the diencephalon

Forms part of the floor of the lateral wall of the third ventricle

Related to a number of structures: optic chasm, mamillary body, tuber cinereum

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Hypothalamus (Function)

Any aspect of physiology of the body is influenced by the hypothalamus

Primary function is processing visceral info : hunger, thirst, controls hormones, regulates body temp, homeostasis,

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Phagic Center (nucleus)

Lateral portion of the hypothalamus

Controls hunger or phagia

Patients with lesions in the part of the hypothalamus exhibit symptoms of anorexia nervosa

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Satiety Center

Ventral medial portion of the hypothalamus

Patients with lesions here eat too much, relates to obesity

Can also cause aggressive behavior

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Homeostasis

Regulation of the pituitary gland

maintains equilibrium in the body

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Pituitary Gland

AKA Hypophysis

Pea-sized swelling at base of hypothalamus

Has two main areas:
Adenohypophysis - anterior
Neurophypophysis - posterior

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Sellar Turcica

Bony cavity in which the pituitary gland sits

Covered by a dural fold called the Sellar Diaphragm

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Sellar Diaphragm

A dural fold that covers the sellar turcica (the bony cavity where the pituitary gland sits)

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Adenohypophysis

Relatively large portion of the pituitary gland located on its anterior portion

This is where hormones are produced

The hypothalamus controls endocrine cells located here - due to this the hypothalamus is able to influence the release of the hormones that these cells produce

Controls the parasympathetic nervous system

33

Neurophypophysis

The posterior portion of the pituitary gland

Controls the sympathetic nervous system - heart rate, breathing, sweating

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Adipsia

Lack of desire to drink

Caused by a lesion to the phagic center of the hypothalamus (lateral portion) - if the lesion is small enough

35

Supraoptic Nucleus

Located in the anterior portion of the hypothalamus

Involved in regulating water balance in the body

Allows us to feel thirsty if there's an insufficient amount of water in the body

If there is too much water in your system the hypothalamus creates the urge to urinate

A lesion is the supraoptic nucleus will cause polydipsia and polyuria

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Polydipsia

Increased water intake - Due to a lesion of the supraoptic nucleus

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Polyuria

Increased urination due to a lesion of the supraoptic nucleus

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Vasoconstriction

Muscles are signaled to shiver in order to generate heat

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Hyperthermia

Increased body temperature caused by a lesion to the anterior portion of the hypothalamus

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Hypothermia

Decreased body temperature due to a lesion in the posterior hypothalamus

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Hypothalamus on Emotion

Hypothalamus is involved in the physical expression of emotion

ex: increased heart rate due to fear, sweating due to fear

In animals stimulation of the dorsomedial nucleus of they hypothalamus causes the animal to behave aggressively and with rage

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Epithalamus

Lies above the thalamus

Has 3 substructures:
Pineal Body/Gland
Stria Medullares
Habenulae

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Pineal Body/Gland

Portion of the epithalamus

Receives visual information about light and darkness

Secretes its chemicals into the bloodstream - these chemicals are associated with sleep/wake cycles

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Stria Medullares

Portion of the epithalamus

Carries the circadian rhythm

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Habenulae

Portion of the epithalamus

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Subthalamus

A structure found in the caudal portion of the diencephalon

Has 3 main structures:
Fields of Forel
Zona Incerta
Subthalamic Nucleus

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Fields of Forel

Structure in the subthalamus

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Zona Incerta

Structure in the sub thalamus

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Subthalamic Nucleus

Conntected to a structure called Globus Pallidus

Receives fibers from the motor cortices

Damage to the subthalamic nucleus results in involuntary movements, especially in the upper limbs

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Globus Pallidus

Structure connected to the subthalamic nucleus