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Flashcards in LESION OF BRAINSTEM Deck (16)
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1. During a gang fight, a 16 year-old male is shot with a 22-caliber short bullet in the occiput. Computed tomography (CT) shows that the bullet is lodged in the left medullary pyramid. The most prominent neurologic deficit is
A. Apallesthesia, right side
B. Exaggerated muscle stretch reflexes, left side
C. Plantar reflex extensor, right side
D. Fasciculations, right side
E. Hyperreflexia, left side

1-C The bullet transected the left medullary pyramid, which contains the uncrossed corticospinal tract. This upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion has produced a right contralateral spastic paresis with all pyramidal signs

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2. A 70-year-old retired Army colonel presents with a right-sided hemiparesis. Which of the following signs best localizes the lesion to the brainstem?
A. Loss of kinesthetic and pallesthetic sensation, right side
B. Lower facial weakness (numbness), right side
C. Exaggerated muscle stretch reflexes, right side
D. Tonic deviation of eyes to the right
E. Lateral strabismus

2-E Lateral strabismus (exotropia) is seen in midbrain lessions (e.g., Weber syndrome) that transeet intra-axial fibers of the oculomotor nerve. The intact lateral rectus pull the globe laterally.

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3. A 10-Year-old boy has right arm and leg dystaxi, nystagmus, hoarseness, along with miosis and ptosis on the right. Bronchoscopy reveals a paretic vocal cord on the right. The lesion site responsible is most likely the
A. right dorsal motor nucleus of CN X
B. left red nucleus
C. dorsolateral medullan
D. dorsolateral pons
E. internal capsule

3-C The lateral medullary syndrome is also called the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) syndrome. The dorsolateral medulla contains the nucleus ambiguous (larynx), hypothala mospinal tract (Horner syndrome), inferior cerebellar peduncle (dystaxia), and vestibular nuclei (nystagmus).

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4. Neurologic examination reveals; miosis ptosis, hemianhidrosis, left side; laryngeal and palatal paralysis, left side; facial anesthesia, left side; and loss of pain and temperature sensation from the trunk and extremities, right side. The lesion site responsible is in the.
A. caudal medulla, ventral median zone, right side
B. rostral medulla, lateral zone, left si.de
C. rostral pontine base, left side
D. caudal pontine tegmentum, lateral zone, right side
E. rostral pontine tegmentum, dorsal median zone, left side

4-B The lesion is a classic Wallenberg syndrome [posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) syndrome] of the lateral medullary zone. Interruption of the descending sympathetic tract produces ipsilateral Hurner syndrome. Involvement of the nucleus ambiguous or its exiting intraaxial fibers accounts for lower motor neuron (LMN) para lysis of the larynx and soft palate. The ipsilateral facial anesthesia is due to interruption of the spinal trigeminal tract; the contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation from the trunk and extremities is due to transection of the spinothalamic tracts. The combination of ipsilateral and contralateral sensory loss is called alternating bemianesthesia. Singultus (hiccup) is frequently seen in this syndrome and is thought to result from irritation of the reticulophrenic pathway.

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5. Neurologic examination reveals; severe ptosis, eye “looks down and out,” right side; fixed dilaped pupil, right side, spastic hemiparesis, left side; and lower facial weakness, left side. The lesion site responsible is in the
A. caudal pontine tegmentum, dorsal median zone, left side
B. rostral pontine tegmentum, dorsal lateral zone, right side
C. pontine isthmus, dorsal lateral tegmentum, left side
D. rostral midbrain, medial basis pedunculi, right side
E. rostral midbrain, medial tegmentum, left side

5-D This consellation of deficits constitutes Weber syndrome, which affects the basis pedunculi and the exiting intra-axial oculomotorfibers. Severe ptosis (compare mild ptosis of Horner syndrome). The abducted and depressed eyeball. And the internal opthalmoplegia (fixed, dilated pupil) are third nerve signs. The contralateral hemiparesis results from interruption of the corticospinal tracts; lower facial weakness is due to interruption of the corticobulbar tracts. The combination of ipsilateral and contralateral motor deficits is called alternating hemiplegia.
The corticospinal tract is closely related with three cranial nerves (CN III, CN VI, and CN XIII); third nerve sign put the lesion in the midbrain, sixth nerve signs put the lesion in the pons, and twelfth nerve signs put the lesion in the medulla. With the exception of the trochlear nerve, all cranial nerves have ipsilateral signs. Transection of the corticospinal tract rostral to the decussation results in a contralateral spastic hemiparesis. The trochlear nucleus, and exception, gives rise to intra-axial axons that cross the midline and exit just caudal to the frenulum of the superior medullary velum. A lesion of the trochlear nucleus results in a contralateral superior oblique palsy.

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6. Neurologic examination reveals; sixth nerve palsy, right side; facial weakness, left side; hemiparesis, left side; and limb and gait dystaxia, right side. The lesion site responsible is in the.
A. caudal pontine tegmentum, lateral zone, right side
B. caudal pontine tegmentum, dorsal median zone, left side
C. caudal medulla, ventral median zone, right side
D. rostral pontine tegmentum, lateral zone left side
E. caudal pontine base, median zone, right side

6-E These signs point to the base the pons (medial inferior pontine syndrome) on the right side and include involvement of the exiting intra-axial abducent fibers that pass through the uncrossed corticospinal fibers; this results an ipsilateral lateral rectus paralysis [lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion] and contralateral hemiparesis. Contralateral facial weakness results from damage to the corticobulbar fibers prior to their decussation. Involvement of the transverse pontine fibers destined for the middle cerebellar peduncle results in cerebellar signs. Again, the involved cranial nerve and pyramidal tract indicate where the lesion must be to account for the deficits. An ipsilateral sixth nerve paralysis and crossed hemiplegia is called the Millard-Gubler syndrome.

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7. Neurologic examination reveals; paralysis of upward and downward gaze, absence of convergence, and absence of pupillary reaction to light. The lesion site responsible is the
A. rostral midbrain tectum D. caudal pontine tegmentum
B. caudal midbrain tectum E. caudal midbrain tegmentum
C. rostral pontine tegmentum

7-A These deficits indicate the Parinaud syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome. This condition frequently is the results of a tumor in the pineal region (e.g., germinoma or pinealoma); a pinealoma compresses the superior colliculus and the underlying accessory oculomotor nuclei that are responsible for upward and downward vertical conjugate gaze. Patients usually have pupillary disturbances and absence of convergence.

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8. Neurologic examination revelas; bilateral medial retus paresis on attempted lateral gaze, monocular horizontal nystagmus in the abducting eye, and unimpaired convergence. The lesion site responsible is in the
A. midpontine tegmentum, dorsomedial zones, bilateral
B. rostral midbrain tectum
C. caudal midbrain tectum
D. caudal pontine base
E. rostral midbrain, bases pedunculorum

8-A The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is located in the dorsomedial midpontine tegmentum MLF syndrome is frequently seen in multiple selorosis and less often in vascular lesions. Another pontine lesion results in one-and-a-half syndrome; it includes the MLF syndrome and a lesion of the abdocent nucleus (CN VI) See Chapter 17

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9. Neurologic examination reveals; ptosis, miosis, and hemianhidrosis, left side, loss of pain and temperature sensation from the trunk. Extremities, and face, right side; and severe dystaxia and intention tremor, left arm. The lesion site responsible is in the
A. rostral midbrain tegmentum, right side
B. rostral pontine tegmentum, dorsal medial zone, left side
C. pontine isthmus, dorsal lateral zone, left side
D. rostral medulla, lateral zone, left side
E. caudal medulla, lateral zone, right side

9-C These deficits correspond to a lesion in the dorsolateral zone of the pontine isthmus, lateral superior pontine syndrome. Interruption of the descending sympathetic pathway to the ciliospinal center of Budge (T1-T2) results in Horner syndrome (always ipsilateral). Involvement of the lateral aspect (includes the leg fibers) of the medial lemniscus results in a loss of vibration sensation nad other dorsal column modalities. Damage to the trigeminothalamic and spinothalamic tracts at this level results in contralateral hemianesthesia of the face and body, Infarction of the superior cerebellar peduncle leads to servere cerebellar dystaxia on the same side.

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10. Neurologic examination reveals; weakness of the pterygoid and masseter muscles, left side; corneal reflex absent, left side, and facial hemianesthesia, left side. The lesion site responsible is in the
A. midpontine tegmentum, lateral zone, left side
B. midpontine base, midial zone, left side
C. caudal pontine tegmentum, lateral zone, left side
D. caudal pontine tegmentum, dorsal medial zone, left side
E. foramen ovale, left side

10-A These signs indicate the lateral midpontine syndrome. This lesion involves the motor and principal trigeminal nuclei and the intra-axial root fibers of the trigeminal nerve as it passes through the base of the pons, All signs are ipsilateral and refer to CN V. the afferent limb of the corneal reflex has been interrupted. This syndrome results from occlusion of the trigeminal artery, a short circumferential branch of the basilar artery

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11. Neurologic examination reveals; loss of the stapedial reflex, loss of the corneal reflex, inability to purse the lips, and loss of taste sensation on the apex of the tongue. The lesion site responsible is in the
A. stylomastoid foramen D. caudal lateral pontine tegmentum
B. basis pedunculi of the midbrain E. rostral medulla
C. rostral lateral pontine tegmentum

11-D These signs constitute the lateral inferior pontine syndrome [anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) syndrome]. The neurologic findings are all signs of a lesion involving the facial nerve (CN VII). The facial nerve nucleus and intra-axial fibers are found in the caudal lateral pontine tegmentum. A lesion of the stylomastoid foramen would not include the absence of the stapedial reflex or the loss of taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The stapedial nerve and the chorda tympani exit the facial canal proximal to the stylomastoid foremen.

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12. Pramedian infarction of the base of the pons involves which of the following structures?
A. Trapezoid body D. Pyramidal tract
B. Descending trigeminal tract E. Ventral spinoverebellar tract
C. Rubrospinal tract

12-D The base of the pons includes the corticospinal (pyramidal), corticobulbar, and corticopontine tracts, pontine nuclei, and transverse pontine fibers. At caudal levels, intra-axial abducent fibers of CN VI pass through the lateral pyramidal fascicles.

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13. All of the following statements concerning the anterior spinal artery are correct EXCEPT
A. it is a branch of the vertebral artery
B. it irrigates the medullary pyramid
C. it irrigates the rood fibers of the hypoglossal nerve
D. it irrigates the inferior olivary nucleus
E. it irrigates the medial lemniscus

13-D The anterior (ventral) spinal artery, a branch of the vertebral artery, irrigates the ventral median zone of the medulla, which includes the pyramid (corticospinal tracts), the medial lemniscus, and the exiting intra-axial root fibers of the hypoglossal nerve (CN XIII). The inferior olivary nucleus lies in the paramedian zone of the

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14. All of the following statements concerning the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) are correct EXCEPT
A. it is a branch of the vertebral artery
B. it supplies the vestibular nuclei in the medulla
C. it supplies the medial lemniscus in the medulla
D. it supplies the inferior cerebellar peduncle
E. it supplies the lateral spinothalamic tract

14-C The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). A branch of the vertebral artery, perfuses the lateral zone of the medulla, which includes the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, the inferior cerebellar peduncle, and the lateral spinothalamic tract.

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15. All of the following statements concerning the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are correct EXCEPT
A. it gives rise, in most, cases, to the labyrinthine artery
B. it supplies the cochlear nuclei
C. it supplies the facial nucleus
D. it supplies the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF)
E. it supplies the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus

15-D The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) usually (85% of cases) gives rise to the labyrinthine artery. The AICA supplies the lateral zone of the caudal pontine tegmentum (including the cochlear nuclei, the facial nucleus, and intra-axial fibers) and the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract. The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is irrigated by paramedian penetrating branches of the basilar artery.

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16. All of the following statements concerning internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) are correct EXCEPT
A. it results from a lesion in the dorsal pontine tegmentum
B. it has no effect on convergence
C. it is frequently seen in multiple sclerosis
D. it results in monocular horizontal nystagmus
E. it results in a lateral rectus palsy on attempted lateral conjugate gaze

16-E Internuclear opthalmoplegia (INO) results from a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), which extends in the dorsomedial tegmentum from the abducent nucleus of CN VI to the oculomotor nucleus of CN III. Transection of the MLF results in medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze and monocular nystagmus in the abducting eye. Convergence is normal. Bilateral MLF syndrome is a common ocular motor manifestation of multiple sclerosis.