COMPREHENSIVE EXAM 51-100 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in COMPREHENSIVE EXAM 51-100 Deck (47)
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51. Each of the following statements concerning the cavernous sinus is true EXCEPT
A. it surrounds the sella turcica
B. it receives blood from the ophthalmic veins
C. it contains fibers from the superior cervical ganglion
D. it contains the mandibular nerve
E. it contains cranial nerves III, IV, and VI

51-D The mandibular nerve (CN V-3) exits the skull through the foramen ovale : it is not found in the cavernous sinus

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52. The posterior cerebral artery supplies all of the following structures EXCEPT
A. the parahippocampal gyrus D. the midbrain
B. the temporal pole E. the thalamus
C. the occipital lobe

52-B The temporal pole is supplied by the anterior temporal artery, which is a branch of the middle cerebral artery

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53. The neural crest gives rise to all of the following cells ECCEPT
A. cells of the sympathetic trunk D. Schwann cells
B. cells of the suprarenal medulla E. ventral horn cells
C. dorsla root ganglion cells

53-E Ventral horn neurons develop in the basal plate of the mantle layer of the neural tube.

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54. Each of the following statements concerning spinal cord nuclei is true EXCEPT
A. the parasympathetic nucleus is located in the lateral horn
B the intermediolateral
C. the spinal accessory nucleus extends from C1 to C6
D. the phrenic nucleus extends from C3 to C6
E. the spinal border cells extend from L1 to S3

54-A The parasympathetic nucleus of the spinal cord is located in the ventral horn (Rexed lamina VII) at sacral levels S2 to S4.

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55. Each of the following statements concerning the fasciculus suneatus is true EXCEPT
A. its neurons of origin are in the dorsal horn
B. its fibers project to a nucleus in the medulla
C. it contains input from the upper extremity
D. it mediates two point tactile discrimination
E. its fibers do not decussate in the spinal cord

55-A The neurons of origin (i.e., firs-order neurons) of the gracile fasciculus are found in the dorsl root ganglia from T5-S5. Second-order neurons are located in the nucleus gracilis of the medulla. Third-oerder neurons are located in the contralateal ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus

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56. Each of the following statements concerning the spinocerebellar tracts is true EXCEPT
A. the dorsal spinocerebellar tract orginates from the nucleus dorsalis of Clarke
B. the spinocerebellar tracts receive input from muscle spindles and Golgitendon organs
C. the cuneocerebellar tract originates in the medulla
D. the ventral spinocerebellar tact originates from the spinal border cells of the ventral horns
E. the ventral spinocerebellar tract enters the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar peduncle

56-E The ventral spinocerebellar tract enters the cerebellum through the superior cerebellar peduncle. The dorsal spinocerebellar and the cuncocerebellar tracts enter the cerebellum through the inferior cerebellar peduncle.

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57. Each of the following statements concerning the lateral spinothalamic tract is true EXCEPT
A. it mediates pain and temperature sensation
B. its secon-order neurons are locatd in the dorsal horn
C. it decussates in the ventral white commissure
D. axons of its firs-order neurons enter the dorsolaterla tract of Lissauer
E. it projects to the ventral postermedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus

57-E The lateral spinothalamic tract projects to the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus of the thalamus. The ventral posteromedial (VPM) nucleus receives pain fibers via the trigeminal system (i.e., the ventral trigeminothalamic tract).

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58. Each of the following statements concerning the pons is true EXCEPT
A. it contains the nucleus the innervates the stapedius muscle
B. it contains the nucleus that innervats the tensor tympani muscle
C. it contains the mesecephalic nucleus
D. it contains a nucleus that innervates the parotid gland
E. it contains the center for lateral conjugate gaze

58-D The parotid gland receives parasympathetic innervations from the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), The inferior sahvatory nucleus of CN IX is found in the medulla; it projects preganglionic fibers via the lesser petrosal nerve (CN IX) to the otic ganglion. The otic ganglion projects postganglionic fibers to the parotid gland.

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59. In the brainstem, intra-axial fibers of the facial nerve are closely associated with all of the following structure EXCEPT
A. the abducent nucleus
B. the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MI. F)
C. the medial lemniscus
D. the spinal nucleus and tract of CN V
E. the middle cerebellar peduncle

59-C The intra-axial fibers of the facial nerve are closely associated with the abducent nucleus the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle. Lesions involving the facial nerve within the pons frequently include these associated structures. The medial lemniscus lies more distant (medial) to the intra-axial fibers of the facial nerve.

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60. The mandibular nerve innervates all of the following structure EXCEPT
A. the mucosa of the anterior two thirds of the tongue
B. the posterior belly of the digastrics muscle
C. the tensor tympani muscle
D. the external auditory meatus
E. the muscles of mastication

60-B The mandibular nerve (CN V.3) innervates the anterior belly of the digastrics muscle. The facial nerve (CN VII) innervates the posterior belly of the digastrics muscle

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61. Each of the following structures is part of the auditory pathway EXCEPT
A. the spiral ganglion D. the inferior olivary nucleus
B. the cochlear nuclei E. the nucleus of the inferior colliculus
C. the trapezoid body

61-D The inferior olivary nucleus is a cerebellar relay nucleus located in the medulla; it is not part of the auditory system. However, the superior olivary nucleus has an important role in the auditory pathway; it receives input from the cochlear nuclei and projects to, and forms, the lateral lemniscus.

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62. Each of the following statements concerning the vestibular nuclei is true EXCEPT
A. they receive input from semicircular ducts
B. they receive input from the saccule and utricle
C. they receive input from the spiral ganglion
D. they project to cranial nerves III, IV, and VI
E. they have reciprocal connections with the flocculonodular lobe

62-C The vestibular nuclei receive input from the vestibular ganglion. Which in found in the base of the internal auditory meatus. The spiral ganglion innervates the cochlear organ of Corti and gives rise to the cochlear nerve (CN VIII).

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63. Each of the following statements concerning the ventral trigeminothalamic tract is true EXCEPT
A. it mediates pain and temperature sensation from the head
B. it receivers input from cranial nerves VII, IX, and X
C. secon-order neurons are found in the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus
D. it is a crossed pathway
E. decussation of pain fibers occurs in the pons

63-E The ventral trigeminothalamic tract mediates pain and temperature sensation. The second-order neurons mediating pain are located in the caudal third of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Decussation of these fibers occurs in the medulla. Fibers that mediate the corneal reflex decussate at a higher level. Thus, trigeminal tractotomies at lower medullary levels (e.g., foramen magnum) may spare the corneal reflex fibers while abolishing pain sensation from the face.

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64. Each of the following statements concerning the medical longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is true EXCEPT
A. it contains ascending and descending fibers
B. it contains vestibular fibers that project to all ocular motor nuclei
C. it is very close to the internal genu of CN VII
D. it is very close to the motor nucleus of CN V
E. it extends from the spinal cord to the mid brain

64-D The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) extends from the spinal cord to the rostral midbrain. It contains ascending vestibular fibers to the oculomotor nuclei of cranial nerves III, IV, and VII; abducent fibers (I, e., fibers from the lateral gaze center of the pons) to the contralateral oculomotor complex (medial rectus subnucleus); and descending vestibulospinal fibers. The MLF is a paramidline structre that lis distant to the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (CN V).

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65. Each of the following statements concerning the vestibular nerve is true EXCEPT
A. it consists of the central processes of bipolar neurons
B. it traverses the internal auditory meatus
C. it projects direct fibers to the cerebellar cortex
D. a normal bilateral corneal reflex
E. it does not contain efferent fibers

65-E The vestibular nerve contains efferent fibers that arise from neurons in the superior and medial vestibular nuclei. These inhibitory fibers innervate the hari cells of the cristae ampullares and the maculae of the utricle and saccule

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66. Transection of the facial nerve between the geniculate ganglion and the chorda tympani results in the loss of all of the following EXCEPT
A. taste sensation from the anterior two thirds of the tongue
B. innervations of the lacrimal gland
C. innervations of the sublingual and submandibular glands
D. the corneal reflex
E. the ability to wrinkle the brow on the affected side

66-B Transection of the facial nerve (CN VII) between the geniculate ganglion and the chordatympani spares the general visceral efferent (GVE) fibers from the superior salivatory nucleus that synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion and innervae the lacrimal gland. These preganglionic lacrimal fibers are located in the major petrosal nerve (CN VII).

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67. Each of the following statements concerning the nucleus ambiguous is true EXCEPT
A. it contains preganglionic parasympathetic neurons that innervate the heart
B. it innervates the musculature of the larynx and pharynx
C. it is located near the hypoglossal nucleus
D. it is located near the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract
E. it sends special visceral efferent (SVE) fibers to cranial nerves IX, X, and XI

67-C The nucleus ambiguous of cranial nervesi IX, X, and XI is located in the lateral medulla, midway on a line connecting the hypoglossal nucleus and the postolivary sulcus; it is not near the hypoglossal nucleus of CN XII. The nucleus ambiguous is supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and the hypoglossal nucleus is supplied by the ventral spinal artery, a branch of the vertebral artery

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68. Each of the following statements concerning Purkinje cells is true EXCEPT
A. they project to the cerebellar nuclei
B. they project to the thalamus
C. they project to the vestibular nuclei
D. they are inhibited by basket cells
E. their neurotransmitter is gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)

68-B Purkinje cells project only to the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei. One of the cerebellar nuclei is the dentate nucleus, which projects to the contralaterla ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus, which in turn projects to the motor cortex (area 4 of the precentral gyrus)

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69. Each of the following statements concerning the cerebellar peduncles is true EXCEPT
A. the superior cerebellar peduncle is the major efferent pathway from the cerebellum
B. the middle cerebellar peduncle attaches the cerebellum to the midbrain
C. the inferior cerebellar peduncle includes the juxtarestiform body
D. the ventral spinocerebllar tract is found in the superior cerebellar peduncle
E. the neocortex influences the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle

69-B The superior cerebellar peduncle connects the cerebellum to the pons and midbrain. The middle cerebellar pedunle connects the cerebellum to the pons. The neocortex influences the cerebellum via the middle cerebellar peduncle. The inferior cerebellar peduncle connects the cerebellum to the medulla.

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70. Each of the following statements concerning the retina is true EXCEPT
A. it is of diencephalic origin
B. the fovea centralis contains rods and cones
C. the optic disk is the blind spot
D. the macula lutea surrounds the fovea centralis
E. the retina has a dual blood supply

70-B The fovea centralis of the retina is the site of highest visual acuity; it contains only cones. The retina has a dual blood supply. The choriocapillaris perfuses the outer layers of the retina, including the outer plexiform layer. The central retinal artery supplies the remaining inner layers of the retina.

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71. Each of the following statements concerning transaction of the left optic tract is true EXCEPT
A. the direct papillary light reflex is unaffected
B. the consensual papillary light reflex is unaffected
C. it causes ganglion cell degeneration in the right nasal hemiretina
D. it causes cell degeneration in the right lateral geniculate body
E. it causes a right homonymous hemianopia

71-D Transection of the optic tract results in transsynaptic (transneuronal) degeneration of cells in the ipsilateral lateral geniculate body. The optic tract contains papillary and visual fibers from the contralateral nasal hemiretina and from the ipsilateral temporal hemiretina. Pupillary fibers from both eyes are present in the optic tract; therefore, interruption of one optic tract does not abolish papillary light reflexes.

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72. Each of the following statements concerning ocular motility is true EXCEPT
A. the frontal eye field is located in the inferior frontal gyrus
B. the occipitaleye field is located in areas 18 and 19
C. the subcortical center for vertical conjugate gaze is located at the junction of the midbrain-diencephalon
D. the subcortical center for lateral conjugate gaze is located in the abducent nucleus
E. stimulation of the frontal eye field couses contralateral deviation of the eyes

72-A The frontal eye field is found in the middle frontal gyrus (area 8). Destruction of a frontal eye field results in a deviation of the eyes toward the side of the lesion.

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73. Each of the following statements concerning autonomic innervations of the eye is true EXCEPT
A. stimulation of the intermediolateral cell column at T1 causes ipsilateral mydriasis
B. transaction of the cervical sympathetic trunk causes ptosis and miosis
C. stimulation of the Edinger Westphal nucleus cases miosis and ptosis
D. destruction of the ciliary ganglion interrupts both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic fibers en route to the globe
E. destruction of the superior cervical ganglion causes ipsilateral Horner syndrome

73-C The Edinger Westphal nucleus contains preganglionic parasympathetic neurons that innervate the sphincter muscle of the iris and the ciliary muscle. Stimulation of this mucleus causes a constructed (miotic) pupil but does not cause ptosis, Severe ptosis results from damage to the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, which innervates the superior levator palpebrae. Slight ptossis results from sympathetic paralysis of the Muller superior tarsal muscle (smooth muscle) in Horner syndrome. Postganglionic sympathetic vasomotor fibers pass through the cilciliary ganglion and reach the iris via the nasociliary and long ciliary nerves.

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74. Parasympathetic stimulation causes all of the following reactions EXCEPT
A. profuse watery secretion of the salivary glands
B. constriction of the lumina of the bronchial tubes
C. ejaculation
D. increased gastrointestinal motility
E. penile erection

74-C Although erection is caused by parasympathetic stimulation, ejaculation is the result of sympathetic stimulation. Sacral somatic motoneurons also play a role in ejaculation. They evoke spasmodic contractions of the bulbocavernoss and ischieocavernosus muscles.

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75. Horner syndrome can result from all of the following lesions EXCEPT
A. hemisection of the spinal cord at C7
B. occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery
C. an aneurysm of the cavernous sinus
D. a tumor of the apex of the lung
E. a tumor of the base of the pons

75-E Horner syndrome results when sympathetic input to the eye, at any level, is interrupted. Descending sympathetic pathways to the ciliospinal center of the thoracic cord (T1-T2) are located in the lateral tegmentum of the brainstem and in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord. Horner syndrome is seen in posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), anterior inferior cerebelar artery (AICA). And Brown-Sequard syndromes; it is frequently associated with lung (Pan coast tumor) and neck tumors that encroach on the sympathetic trunk and cervical sympathetic ganglia. Dsease of the neck and cavernous sinus may also cause Horner syndrome.

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76. Each of the following statements concerning olfactory receptor cells is true EXCEPT
A. they are firs order neurons in the olfactory pathway
B. they are unmyelinated bipolar neurons with central processes that form the first cranial nerve
C. they synapse with mitral cells in the olfactory bulb
D. they are incapable of regeneration
E. they enter the skull via the lamina cribrosa of the ethmoid bone

76-D Olfactory receptor cells are located in the olfactory mucosa of the superior nasal conchae and opposing septum. These cells have a live span of 1 month and are capable of regeneration.

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77. Each of the following structures is a part of the gustatory pathway EXCEPT
A. cranial nerves VII, IX, and X
B. the solitary tract and nucleus
C. the parabrachial nucleus
D. the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nucleus
E. Area 43 of the pariental lobe

77-D The gustatory (taste) pathway [special visceral afferent (SVA)] includes taste buds of the tongue; cranial nerves VII, IX, and X; solitary tract and nucleus; central tegmental tract; parabrachial nucleus of the pons; ventral posteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus; and primary olfactory cortex (area 43).

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78. All of the following structures are present in the cavernous sinus or its lateral wall EXCEPT
A. the ophthalmic nerve D. cranial nerves III, IV, and VI
B. the maxillary nerve E. postganglionic sympathetic fibers
C. the mandibular nerve

78-G The mandibular nerve (CN V-3) is not located in the cavernous sinus. The cavernous sinus includes cranial nerves III, IV, VI, V-1,V-3, postganglionic sympathetic fibers, and the internal carotid artery.

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A. Abducent nerve
B. Accessory nerve
C. Facial nerve
D. glossopharyngeal nerve
E. Hypoglossal nerve
F. Olfactory nerve
G. Optic nerve
H. Trigeminal nerve
I. Trochlear nerve
J. Vagal nerve
K. Vestibulocochlear nerve

79-C The facial nerve provides the efferent limb of the corneal reflex.

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A. Abducent nerve
B. Accessory nerve
C. Facial nerve
D. glossopharyngeal nerve
E. Hypoglossal nerve
F. Olfactory nerve
G. Optic nerve
H. Trigeminal nerve
I. Trochlear nerve
J. Vagal nerve
K. Vestibulocochlear nerve

80. Is derived from the walls of the diencephalic vesicle

80G The optic nerve is derived from the wall of the diencephalic vesicle.

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A. Abducent nerve
B. Accessory nerve
C. Facial nerve
D. glossopharyngeal nerve
E. Hypoglossal nerve
F. Olfactory nerve
G. Optic nerve
H. Trigeminal nerve
I. Trochlear nerve
J. Vagal nerve
K. Vestibulocochlear nerve

81. Is often damage in the process of transtentorial herniation

81-E The oculomotor nerve is often damaged in the process of transtentorial herniation

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A. Abducent nerve
B. Accessory nerve
C. Facial nerve
D. glossopharyngeal nerve
E. Hypoglossal nerve
F. Olfactory nerve
G. Optic nerve
H. Trigeminal nerve
I. Trochlear nerve
J. Vagal nerve
K. Vestibulocochlear nerve

82. Mediates the sensory and motor innervations of pharyngeal arches 4 and 6

82-J The vagal nerve mediates the sensory and motor innervations of the pharyngeal arches 4 and 6.

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A. Abducent nerve
B. Accessory nerve
C. Facial nerve
D. glossopharyngeal nerve
E. Hypoglossal nerve
F. Olfactory nerve
G. Optic nerve
H. Trigeminal nerve
I. Trochlear nerve
J. Vagal nerve
K. Vestibulocochlear nerve

83 Innervates the muscle that depresses, intorts, and abducts the globe

83-I The trocblear nerve innervates the muscle that depresses, intorts, and abducts the globe.

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A. Basal ganglia
B. Cerebellum
C. Frontal lobe
D. Occipitial lobe
E. Parietal lobe
F. Temporal lobe
G. Subthalamic nucleus
H. Ventral horn

84. A 50-year-old policeman complains of a tremor in both hands. This tremor is most obvious at rest. While the man is reaching for an object, the tremor disappears.

84-A Parkinson disease is characterized by a symptom triad tremor (“pill-rolling”). Rigidity and hypokinesia. The substantia nigra (a basal ganglion) bears the brunt of the cell loss. (Other basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus, putammen, and globus pallidus) Cerebellar disease is characterized by tremor (intention tremor), ataxia, and hypotonia. Destruction of the subthalamic nucleus results in contralateral hemiballismus.

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A. Basal ganglia
B. Cerebellum
C. Frontal lobe
D. Occipitial lobe
E. Parietal lobe
F. Temporal lobe
G. Subthalamic nucleus
H. Ventral horn

85. A 35-year-old tennis plyer is concerned about weakness in his arms and hands, and henotices a lose of muscle mass in the upper limbs. His muscle stretch reflexes (MRs) are exaggerated in the lower extremities, and he has muscle twitches in the upper limbs.

85-H In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there is a loss of ventral horn cells and a loss of cortical pyramidal cells that give rise to the pyramidal tract. This motor system disease consists of an upper motor neuron component and a lower motor neuron component. There are no sensory deficits in ALS.

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

86. Cerebral aqueduct

86-C The cerebral aqueduct is located in the midbrain (mesencephalon). It interconnects the third and fourth ventricles.

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

87. Cranial nerves III and IV

87-C The tegmentum of the midbrain constains the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and the trochlear nerve (CN IV). The midbrain also contains the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (CN V).

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

88. Caudate nucleus

88-E The caudate nucleus, a basal ganglion, is located in the white mutter of the telencephalon It forms the lateral wall of the frontal born of the lateral ventricle.

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

89. Optic chiasma

89-A The optic chiasma is located in the diencephalon. It lies between the anterior commissure and the infundibulum of the pituitary gland (hypophysis).

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

90. Olive and the pyramid

90-B The olive and the pyramid are prominent structures on the surface of the medulla. The olive contains the inferior olivary nucleus; the pyramid contains the corticospinal tract.

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

91. Pineal gland

91-A The pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri) is part of the epithalamus, which is a subdivision of the diencephalon

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A. Diencephalon
B. Medulla
C. Midbrain
D. Pons
E. Telencephalon

92. Cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

92-A Cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII are located in the medulla.

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A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Microglial cells
D. Oligodendrocystes
E. Schwann cells

93. Are derived from the neural crest

93-E Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are neural crest derivatives

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A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Microglial cells
D. Oligodendrocystes
E. Schwann cells

94. May myelinate numerous axons

94-D Oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) may myelinate numerous axons. Schwann cells myelinate only one internode

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A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Microglial cells
D. Oligodendrocystes
E. Schwann cells

95. Have filaments that contain glial fibrillary acidic protein

95-A The filaments of astrocytes contain fibrillary glial acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrocytes and astrocytic tumer cells. Another biochemical marker is glutamine synthetase found exclusively in astrocytes.

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A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Microglial cells
D. Oligodendrocystes
E. Schwann cells

96. Myelinate only one internode

96-E Schwann cells myelinate only one internode. Schwann cells are derived from the neural crest; Schwann cells may proliferate to form tumors, Schwannomas (acoustic neurilemomas).

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A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Microglial cells
D. Oligodendrocystes
E. Schwann cells

97. Arise from monocytes

97-C Microglial cells arise from monocytes. They are phagoeytes of the CNS and are also called rod cells, gitterzellen, histiocytes, and macrocytes.