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Flashcards in NEUROTRANSMITTER Deck (27)
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1. All of the following statements concerning Lambert. Eaton myasthenic syndrome are correct EXCEPT
A. it is associated with carcinoma of the lung
B. it is an autoimmune syndrome that occurs in the presence of antibodies to the nicotine acetyleholine (Ach) receptors
C. it does not affect the limb mueles at presentation
D. it commonly does not affect the limb museles at presentation
E. musele strength improves with use

1-B Lambert Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by a prosynaptic defect of acetylcoline (Ach) release. The inportansce of this relatively uncommon syndrome is its relation to neoplasm : 50% of cases are associated with malignance. Note that bultar museles, which are innervated hymotor eranial nerves. Are not affected. Muscle strength improves with use. Autonomic dysfunction in common (e.g..dry mouth, incontinence).

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2. All of the following statements concerning myasthenia gravis are correct EXCEPT
A. diplopia and ptosis are common signs
B. musele use results in fatigue
C. this autoimmune syndrome occurs in the presence of antibodies the muscarinic ncetyleholine (Ach) receptors
D. this conditions results in nisal speech dysarthria, and jaw fatigue
E. this conditions may be diagnosed using edrophonium (Tensilon)

2-C Muscarinic acetylcholine (Ach) receptors are not involved in myasthenia gravis. Automatibodies are directed against nicotinic Ach receptors on the skeletal muscle and bloc the Ach binding site. Extrancular muscle is most commonly involved in myasthenia gravis. Resulting in ptosis and doublevision. Muscle use results in fatigue (In Lambert Easton myasthenic synfrome, muscle use leads to decreased muscle fatigue) Involvement of the bulbar muscle results in dysarthria dysphonia, and dysphasia. The proximal limbs are weaker and the distal are stronger. Edrophonium (Tansilon), a cholinerterese inhibitor, can be used to diagnose myasthenia gravis.

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3. All of the following statements concerning acetyleholine (Ach) are correct EXCEPTS
A. it is the major transmiliter of the peripheral nervous system
B. it is found in high concentration in the striatum
C. it is found in high concentration in the basal mucleus of Meynert
D. ist levels are inereased in Alzheimer disease
E. it is the involved neurotransmitter in myasthenia gravis

3-D Acetylcholine (ACh) is the major transmitter of the paroipheral nervous system (PNS). It is found in high concentration in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and in the basal nueleus of Mynert. Striatal Ach-containing neurons are local circuit neurons. Cholinergic neurons from the basal nucleus project to the entire neocortex. Choline acetyltransferase levers arereduced in Alzheimer disease. In myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune syndrome, there is a decrease in the number of Ach preceptor sites in the potsynaptic membrane.

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4. All of following statements concerning dopamine are correct EXCEPT
A. dopaminergic neuron are found chiefly in the striatum
B. dopaminergic terminals are found chiefly in the striatum
C. dopaminergic fibers are found in the tuberohypophyseal pathway
D. dopamine contains an indole nucleus
E. dopamine is a catecholamine

4-D. Dopaminergic neurons are found ehiefly in the midbrain (the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Tasi). Dompamine is a monoamine and a catecholamine. The tuberohypophyseal tract contains dopaminergic axon from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Dopamine inhibits the relense of prolactin from the adenohypophysis. The indole nucleus is found in serotonim.

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5. All of the following statements concerning the locus ceruleus are correct EXCEPT
A. it is a mesencephalic structure
B. in contains noradrenergic neurons
C. it contains dopamine β hydroxylase
D. its projections are limited to the cerebel lar cortex
E. it is a pontine structure

5-D The locus ceruleus is located in the midbrain and rostal pons and contains noradrenergic neurons. The noradrenergic neurons contain the enzyme dopamine β hydroxylase which synthesizes noradrenergic from dopamine. The locus ceruleus projects to the entire brain, the cerebellum, and large parts of the brainsten and spinal cord : it contains the largest concentrations in Alzheimer disease and Parikinson disease.

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6. All of the following statements concerning serotonergic neurons are correct EXCEPT
A. they are found in the raphe nuclei
B. they are found in the cerebellum
C. they innervate the basal ganglia
D. they innervate the cerebellum
E. they contain tryptophan hydroxylase

6-B Serotonergic [5 hydroxytryptamine (5 HT)-containing] neurons are found in the rephe nuclei and contain trypophan hydroxylase which catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5 hydroxytryptophan, the immediate precursor of 5-HT. The caudate nucleus and putamen (basal ganglia) and cerebellum are innervated by 5 HT cell of the rephe nuclei. Serotonorgic neurons are found only in the rephe nuclei of the brainstem.

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7. All of the following statements concerning somatostating are correct EXCEPT
A. it is found in dorsal root ganglion cells
B. it is found in the hypothalamus
C. it is reduced in patients with Alzheimer disease
E. it regulates the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the hypophysis

7-C Somatostatin (somatrotopin release-inhibiting hormone), a cyclic peptide, is found in dorsal root ganglia and in the anterior hypothalamus. Somatostatin is a growth hormone (GH)-inhibiting hormone that is released into the hypophyeal portal system. Somatostain concentatioan in the neocortex and hippocampus is significantly reduced in patinas with Alzhaimer disease

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8. All of the following statements concerning substance P are correct EXECEPT
A. it is found in the stratopallidal and striatonigral tracts
B. it is contained in dorsal root ganglion cell
C. it is produced in neurons of the raphe nucle
D. it plays a role in pain transmissions
E. it is a powerfum inhibitory neurotransmitter

8-E Substance P is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a role in pain transmissions. The small sicicptive dorsal root ganglion cell use substance P. Raphe nuclei have been found to product (the caudate both serotonim (5-HT) and substance P. Substance P is also produced in striatal neurons (the caudate nucleus and the putamen). Which project to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

9. Its highest concentration ganglion cells and in the pineal gland

9-M the highest concentration of serotonim is found in the pineal body (epiphysis cerebri). Pinealocytes convert 5 hydroxytryptamine (5.HT) to melatonim.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

10. Is found in pseudounipolar ganglion cells and in the substantia gelatinosa

10-O Substance P is the neurotransmitter of pain fibers and is found in pseudounipolar ganglion cells and in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. Substance P is also found in the caudal spinal trigeminal tract.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

11. Is responsible for the smooth muscie relaxation of the corpus cavernosum and thus penile erection

11-K Nitric oxide is responsible for the smooth musele relaxation of the corpus canvernosum and thus pemile erection.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

12. Is produced by neurons found in the locus ceruleus.

12-I the Highest concentration of norepinephinergic neurons is found in the locus ceruleus.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

13. Is the neurotransmitter of the corticostri atal pathway

13-J Glutamate is the neurotransmitter of the certicostrial pathway

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

14. Is produced by neurons of the raphe nuclei

14-M Serotonim is product by neurons of the raphe neuclei.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

15. Is the neurotransmitter of the climbing fibers of the cerebellum

15-B Aspartate is the neurotransmitter of the climbing fibers of the cerebellum

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

16. Low levels are associated with severe de pression and insomnia

16-M Low levels of 5-hydrxytryptamine (5-HT) are associated with severe depreddions and insomnia.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

17. Is product by neurons found in the basal nucleus of Meynert

17-A Acetylcholine (Ach) is found in highest concentration in the basal ancleus of Meynert. Lo cated between the anterior perforated substance and the glabus pallidus, a forebrain nucleus.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

18. Is Produced almost exclusively in the hypothalamus

18-E Endrophin is produced almost exclusively in the hypothalamus (arcuate nueleus).

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

19. A reduction of pastsynaptic receptor sites for this neurotransmitter causes myasthenia gravis

19-A In myasthenia gravis, there is a reduced acetylcholine receptor concentration in the motor end plate due to an autoimmune reaction directed against the receptor protains.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

20. Is the neurotransmitter of the Renshaw cells

20-J Glyeine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the spinal cord : glycine is used by Renshaw cells, inhibitory interneurons driven by axon collaterals of lower motor neurons (LMNs).

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

21. Striatet levels of this neurotransmitter are reduced in Huntington disease

21-H Striatal levels of gamma aminohutyric acid (GABA) are gratly reduced in Huntington disease. This attrition of GABA ergic neurons in the head of the caudate nucleus in hy drocephalus ex vacou.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

22. Is the neurotransmitter of the cerebellar granule cell

22-H Gamma aminobutyrie acid (GABA) is the neurotransmitter of the purkinje cells.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

23. Is the neurotransmitter of the cerebellar granula

23-I Glutamate is the neurotransmitter of the cerebellar granula cell

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

24. Is found in high concentration in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and in the ventral tegmental area of the mesencephalon

24-D Dopamine is found in high concentration in the mesolimbic pathway is linked to behavior and schizophrenia.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

25. Is the neurotransmitter of the mesolimbic pathway

25-D Dopamine is the neurotransmitter of the mesolimbic pathway. This pathway is linked tobehavior and schizophrenia.

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

26. Inhibits the release of prolactin from the adenohypophysis

26-D Dopamine inhibits the release of prolactin from the adenohypophysis. Dopaminergic neurons are found schizopherina

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A. Acetylcholine
B. Aspartate
C. β-Endorphin
D. Dopamine
E. Endorphin
F. Enkephalin
G. Epinephrine
H. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
I. Glutamate
J. Glycine
K. Nitric oxide
L. Norepinephrine
M. Serotonin
N. Somatostatin

27. Is the main neurotransmitter of the pallidothalamic and nigrothalamic tracts

27-H Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA. The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain. Is the main neurotransmitter of the pallidothalamic.