HYPOTHALAMUS Flashcards Preview

JAMES D FIX fey > HYPOTHALAMUS > Flashcards

Flashcards in HYPOTHALAMUS Deck (27)
1

1. The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located inthe
A. anterior nucleus D. posterior nueleus
B. arcuate nueleus E. ventromedial nucleus
C. medial preoptic mueleus

1-C The sexually dimorphic nueleus is located in the medial proaptic nueleus of the proptic region

1

2. A 40-year-oid woman, who has taken birth control pills, has a 4, month history of amenorrhea and a bitemporal hemianopia that beganas a bitemporal quadrantanopia. What is the most likely cause of these deficits ?
A. Sella turcica meningioma
B. Cavernous sinus meningioma
C. Pituitary adenoma
D. Optic gloma
E. Aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery

2-C A pituitary adenoma is charaeterizaed by amenorrea and visual flied defeets. Specifically a bitemporal hemianopia. The amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome ineludes visual abnormalities, amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and elevated serum prolactin.

1

3. All of the following structures are surface landmarks of the hypothalamus EXEPT the
A. infundibulum D. tuberculum cinereum
B. tuber cinereum E. mamillary bodies
C. optic chiasm

3-D The tuberculum einereum is a survace eminence of the medulla. Overlying the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus. The tuber cinereum is a hypothalamic prominence found on the ventral survace between the optic chiasm and the mamillary bodies.

1

4. The fornix consists of all of the following parts EXCEPT the
A. alveus D. crus
B. calcar avis E. column
C. fimbria

4-B The calcar avis (hippocampus minor) an aminence of the medical wall of the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle, overlies the calearine flasure.

1

5. All of the following statement concerning the paraventracular mucleus are correct EXEPT
A. it contains neuroseeretory neurons that produce antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
B. it projects to the posterior pituitary gland
C. its magnocellular neurons elaborate exy tocin
D. it gives rise to the supraopticohypophyseal tract.
E. it plays a role in regulation the release of gonedotropin.

5-E The medial preoptic nueleus plays a role in regulating the release of gonadotropic hormones for the anterior pituitary gland.

1

6. All of the following statements concerning hypothalamic releasing-nonreleasing hormones are correct EXEPT
A. they are predominantly neuropeptides
B. they are transported to the neurohypothysis
C. they include somatostatin
D. they include dopamine
E. they are produced in the arcuate nueleus

6-B Hypothalamic releasing-nonreleasing hormones are transported via the anterior nucleus of the thalamus. The medial forebrain bundle interconnects portal system, which are located in the infundibular stalk

1

7. All of the following statements concerning the medial forebrain bundle are corret EXCEPT
A. it is a major thoroughfare of the hypothal amus.
B. it traverses the entire lateral hypothalamus
C. it interconnects the mamillary body with the anterior nucleus of the thalamus
D. it receives input from the septal area
E. it receives input from the midbrain tegmentum

7-C The medial mamillary nucleus project via the memillothalamic tract to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus. The medial forebrain bundle interconneets the septal area, the lateral hypothalamus, and the midhrain tegmentum,

1

8. All of the following statements concerning the hypothalamus are correct EXEPT
A. it is a division of the diencephalon
B. it is perfused by the posterior communicating artery
C. it is visible only from the ventral aspect of the brain
D. it lies withing the mamillary
E. it ineludes the mamillary body

8-D The hypothalamus a division of the diencephalon, is visible only from the ventral survace of the brain. It is perfused by all vessels of the arterial cirele of willis. Ineluding the posterior communicating artery. The hypothalamus lies below the thalamus and within the wells of the third ventricle. The thalamus is the longest and most conspicuous part of the diencephaton.

1

9. The supraoptical region contains all of the ventricle
A. The supraoptic that plays a role in temperature regulation
B. a nucleus that receives substantial input from the hippocampal formatio
C. a nucleus that manufactures antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
D. a nucleus that manufactures exytoein
E. a nucleus that receives direct input from the retina

9-B The hippocampal formation projects massive input to the mamillary nucleus a nucleus of the mamillery region. The supraoptic region contains the anterior suprachiasmatic paraven tricular and supraotic nuclei. The anterior nueleus plays a role in temperature regulation. The pareventricular and supraoptic muelei elahorate antidioretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. The suprachiasmtic nueleus direct unput from the retina.

1

10. All of the following statement concerning the mamillary nucleus are correct EXCEPT
A. it project ti the ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus
B. it receives input from the hippoeampal formation
C. it receives input from the dorsal and ventral tagmental nuclei
D. it receives input from the subiculum vita the formix
E. it contains hemorrhagic lesions in wernicke encephalophaty

10-A The mamillary nueleus project vita the mamillothalamic tract to the anterior necleus of the thalamus.

1

11. All of the following statements concerning craniopharyngiomas are corret EXCEPT
A. the frequently cause a bitemporal hemianoia
B. they usually can be seen on radiography
C. they are reraly seen in children
D. they are thought to originate from the Rathke pouch
E. they may cause ediposity and diabetes in sipidus

11-C A craniopharyngioma is a engenital tumor thought to originate from remants of the Rathke pouch and is the most common supratentarial tumor in children. These tumors are usually ealcified and can be seen on plain film. Pressure on the chiasm produces a hitemporal hemianopia. Pressure on the hypothalamus causes hypothalamic (e.g,. adiposity and diabetes insipidus).

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

12. Extends from the posterior hypothalamie nucleus to the caudal medulla

12-E The dorsal longitudinal extend from the posterior hypothalamic nucleus the caudel medulla and project to automatic centers of the brainstem. It contains both ascending and descending

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

13. Interconnects the hypothalamus and the amygdaloid complex


13-C the amygdaloid complex is intercounnected with the hypothamamus vita the satria terminalis and the ventral amygdolafugal pathway.

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

14. Is the largest projection to
the hypothalamus


14-A The fornix contains 2.7 million fibers and is the largest projection to the hypothalamus.

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

15. Connects the septal area to the midbrain tagementum

15-B The medial forebrain bundle intereonneets the largens projection to the hypothalamus and the midbrain tegmentum

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

16. Conduets fihers from the hippocampal formation to the mamillary nueleus

16-A The fornix projects from the subeculum of the hippocampal formation to the mamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. The fornix projects to the anterior nucleus, septal nuclei, lateral proptic region and the nucleus of the diagonal band Broca.

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

17. Lies between the caudate nucleus and the thalamus

17-C The stria terminalis lies in the suleus terminalis with the vena terminalis, sparates the head of the caudate neuleus from the thalamus and interconnects the amygdaloid nuclear complex with the hypothalamus.

1

A. Fornix
B. Media forebrain bundle
C. satria terminalis
D. Mamillary peduncle
E. Dorsal longitudinal

18. Separates the medial hypothalamus from the lateral hypothalamus

18-A The colum of the fornix lies between the medial and lateral hypothalamus

1

19. Amenorrhea and galactorrhea
A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

19-G Amenorrhea and galactorrhea result from a prolactin-seeriting pituitary adenoma, the most common type of pituitary adenoma

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

20. Hemorrhagic lesions is the mamillary bodies

20-H Hemorrhagie lesions in the mamillary bodies and in the pariquaductal gray of the mid-brain are seen in Wernicke encephalopathy.

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

21. Associated with the Rathke pouch

21-B Craniopharyngiomas, eongenital epidermoid tomurs, are derived from the Rathke pouch : they are the most common supratentarial tumors found in children

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

22. Destruction of the anterior hypothalamic nuclei

22-D Destruction of the anterior hypothalamic nuclei results in hyperthermia

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

23. Stimulation of the ventromedial nuclei

23-A Stimulation of the anterior ventromedial nuclei inhibits the urge to eat, resulting in emaciation (cachexia or anorexia). Destruction of these nuclei results in hyperphagia and savage behavior

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

24. Bilateral lesions of the posterior hypothalamic nuclei

24-F Bilateral Lesions of the ventromedial nuclei inhibits the urge to eat, resulting in hyperphagia and savage behavior.

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

25. Bilateral lesions of the posterior hypothalamic nuclei

25-E Bilateral lesions of the posterior hypothalamic neucle result in the inability to ther moregulate (poikilothermia). Bilateral destruction of only the posterior aspect of the lateral by.

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

26. Destruction of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei

26-C Destruetion of the supraotic and paraventricutar nuclei or the supraopticohypophyseal tract results insipidus with polydipsia and polyuria.

1

A. Anorexia
B. Craniopharyngioma
C. Diabetes inspidus
D. Hyperthemia
E. Inability to thermoregulate
F. Obesity and savage behavior
G. Pituitary adenoma
H. Wernicke encephalopathy

27. Is due to a thiemine (vitamin B) deficiency

27-H Wernicke encephalopathy is due to a thiamine (vitamin B) deficieney