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JAMES D FIX fey > AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM > Flashcards

Flashcards in AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Deck (24)
1

1. Postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic fibers innervate the
A. sweat glands D. trigone of the urinary bladder
B. lacrimal gland E. detrusor muscle
C. ductus deferens

1-A Postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic fibers innervate the eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands and some blood vessels; blood vessels, however, are predominantly innervated by postganglionic sympathetic adrenergic fibers. Apocrine sweat glands of the axilla are innervated by adrenergic fibers; these glands secrete in response to mental stress.

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2. Which of the following ganglia does not contain postganglionic parasympathetic neurons?
A. Otic D. Submandibular
B. Celiac E. ciliary
C. Pterygopalatine

2-B The celiase ganglion is a sympathetic prevertebral (collateral) ganglion that contains post ganglionic neurons

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3. Destruction of the ciliary ganglion results in which of the following deficits ?
A. Sever ptosis D. Loss of direct pupillary reflex
B. Loss of corneal reflex E. Miosis
C. Loss of lacrimation

3-D Destruction of the ciliary ganglion interrupts postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, which innervate the sphineter muscle of the iris and the ciliary muscle; this results in loss of the direct pupillary reflec, mydriasis, and paralysis of accommodation. In addition, postganglionic sympathetic vasomotor fibers are interrupted, resulting in a hyperemic globe. Postganglionic sympathetic pupillodilator fibers reach the iris via the nasociliary and long ciliary nerve. Severe ptosis results from an oculomotor paralysis involving the fibers that innervate the levator palpebrae muscle. Mild ptosis results from a lesion of the oculosympathetic fibers, which innervate the smooth tarsal muscle (Horner syndrome).

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4. Parasympathetic stimulation results in all of the following responses EXCEPT
A. contraction of the ductus deferens D. bronchial constriction
B. secretion of the salivary glands E. penile erection
C. increased peristalsis

4-A Contraction of the smooth muscles of the ductus deferens and seminal vesicle (ejaculation) results from sympathetic stimulation

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5. All of the following statements concerning gray communicating rami are correct EXCEPT
A. they contain preganglionic sympathetic fibers
B. they are found at all spinal cord lovels
C. they contain general visceral efferent (GVE) fibers
D. they contain postganglionic sympathetic fibers
E. they are gray because they contain no myelinated fibers

5-A Gray communicating rami are associated with all spinal nerves; they contain only nonmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic fibers. All autonomic visceromotor fibers are GVE fibers.

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6. The viscera are insensitive to all of the following stimuli EXCEPT
A. distention D. cutting
B. cold E. touch
C. hear

6-A Visceral pain results from distention, strong contractions, mechanical stimulation of hyperemic organs, and ischemia with release of kinins

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7. Sympathectomy of the superior cervical ganglion results in all of the following signs EXCEPT
A. vasodilation of the cutaneous vessels of the face
B. miosis
C. hemianhidrosis
D. exophthalmos
E. ptosis

7-D Sympathectomy of the superior cervical ganglion interrupts sympathetic innervation to the head, resulting in Horner syndrome; mild ptosis (lid droop), miosis, facial hermianhidrosis, vasodilation, and an apparent enophthalmos due to ptosis.

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8. Which of the following statements concerning preganglionic sympathetic fibers is FALSE?
A. They arise from the intermediolateral cell column
B. They project without synapse to the adrenal medulla
C. Their terminals elaborate acetylcholine (ACH)
D. They are found in splanchnic nerves
E. They synapse in the myenteric plexus

8-E The myenteric plexus receives postganglionic sympathetic input from the prevertebral (collateral) ganglia. The adrenal medulla receives preganglionic sympathetic cholinergic fibers via the lesser splanchnic nerve.

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9. All of the following statements concerning the sacral division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are correct EXCEPT
A. it innervates the transverse colon
B. it innervates the descending colon
C. it innervates the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder
D. it includes saeral segments S2, S3 and S4
E. its postganglionic parasympathetic neurons are found in, on, or near the walls of the organs that they innervate

9-A The sacral division (S2-S4) of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) innervates the lower abdominal and pelvic viscera, including the colon distal to the left colic flexure, the urinary bladder (detrusor muscle), and genital viscera. Postganglionic parasympathetic neurons are found in or on the viscera that they innervate.

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10. Sympathetic stimulation results in all of the following responses EXCEPT
A. dilation of the pupil
B. contraction of the bladder
C. dilation of the bronchial lumina
D. increased perspiration
E. ejaculation

10-B Sympathetic stimulation results in dilation of the pupils (mydriasis), dilation of the lumina of the bronchi, increased perspiration (sudation), and constriction of the ductus deferens (resulting in ejaculation). Contraction of the detrusor muscle is a parasympathetic function.

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11. All of the following statements concerning the vagal nerve are correct EXCETP
A. it supplies the transverse colon
B. it supplies the esophagus
C. it contains fibers from the carotid sinus
D. it contains general visceral efferent (GVE) fibers from the nucleus ambiguous
E. it contains fibers from the carotid body

11-C The vagal nerve (CN X) contains preganglionic fibers from the nucleus ambiguous that terminate in the cardiac ganglia. It innervates the esophagus, thoractic viscera, and abdominal viscera, excluding the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum, which are innervated by the pelvic nerve (S2-S4). The carotid sinus (baroreceptor) is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX; sinus nerve). The carotid body (chemoreceptor) is innervated by the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves.

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12. All of the following statements concerning preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are correct EXCEPT
A. they are found in the pelvic nerves
B. they arise from the Edinger Westphal nucleus
C. they arise from the nuclei of CN III, VII, IX, and X
D. they traverse the white communicating rami
E. they project to the otic ganglion

12-D Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers arise from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of CN III, superior salivatory nucleus of CN VII, inferior salivatory nucleus of CN IX, and dorsal motor nucleus and nucleus ambiguous of CN X. preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from sacral segments (S2-S4) traverse the pelvic nerves; they do not traverse the white communicating rami. The otic ganglion receives preganglionic parasympathetic input from the inferior salivatory nucleus of CN IX.

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13. Horner syndrome may result from all of the following lesions EXCEPT
A. carcinoma of the lung apex
B. tumorous involvement of the cervical lymph nodes
C. hemisection of the cervical spinal cord
D. thrombosis od the posterior inferior cerebellar artery
E. destruction of the ciliary ganglion

13-E Horner syndrome is caused by all lesions that interrupt sympathetic input to the eye. A lesion of the ciliary ganglion results in denervation of the sphincter pupilae muscle of the iris and the ciliary muscle. Postgnglionic sympathetic fibers that innervate the dilator pupillae muscle and the smooth tarsal muscle do not traverse the ciliary ganglion.

14

A. Hircshsprung disease
B. Horner syndrome
C. Peptic ulcer disease
D. Riley Day syndrome
E. Raynaud disease

14. Results from increased parasympathetic stimulation

14-C Peptic ulcer disease results from increased parasympathetic tone

15

A. Hircshsprung disease
B. Horner syndrome
C. Peptic ulcer disease
D. Riley Day syndrome
E. Raynaud disease

15. Is a painful vasospastic disorder affecting the digits

15-E Raynaud disease is a benign symmetric disease characterized by painful vasospasms af fecting the digits

16

A. Hircshsprung disease
B. Horner syndrome
C. Peptic ulcer disease
D. Riley Day syndrome
E. Raynaud disease

16. Is an autosomal recessive trait characterized by abnormal sweating and blood pressure instability

16-D Riley-Day syndrome, familial dysautonomia, is an autosomal recessive trait characterized by abnormal sweating and blood pressure instability.

17

A. Hircshsprung disease
B. Horner syndrome
C. Peptic ulcer disease
D. Riley Day syndrome
E. Raynaud disease

17. Results from congenital absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus

17-A Congenital anganglionic megacolon, or Hirschsprung disease, results from failure of the neural crest cells to migrate into the wall of the distal colon (sigmoid colon and rectum) and from the myenteric plexus. It is characterized by extreme dilation and hypertrophy of the colon, with fecal retention

18

A. Hircshsprung disease
B. Horner syndrome
C. Peptic ulcer disease
D. Riley Day syndrome
E. Raynaud disease

18. Consists of anisocoria and lack
of sweating

18-B Aniscoria (unequal pupils) and hemianhidrosis (lack of sweating on half of the face) are consistent with Horner syndrome, which also involves ptosis, miosis, and hemianhidrosis.

19

A. Acetylcholine (Ach)
B. Dopamine
C. Nitric oxide
D. Norepinephrine
E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)

19. Is a vasodilator

19-E Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a vasodilator found in post ganglionic parasympathetic fibers, colocalized with acetylcholine (Ach)

20

A. Acetylcholine (Ach)
B. Dopamine
C. Nitric oxide
D. Norepinephrine
E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)

20. Is the neurotransmitter of the small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells

20-B Dopamine is the neurotransmitter of the small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells

21

A. Acetylcholine (Ach)
B. Dopamine
C. Nitric oxide
D. Norepinephrine
E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)

21. Innervates apocrine sweat glads

21-D Norepinephrine innervates apocrine sweat glands; these glands of the axilla and anal region respond to emotional stress

22

A. Acetylcholine (Ach)
B. Dopamine
C. Nitric oxide
D. Norepinephrine
E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)

22. Innervates eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands

22-A Acetylcholine (Ach) innervates eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands, which respond to heat stress

23

A. Acetylcholine (Ach)
B. Dopamine
C. Nitric oxide
D. Norepinephrine
E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)

23. Is the transmitter responsible
for penile erection

23-C Nitric oxide is the transmitter responsible for penile erection

24

A. Acetylcholine (Ach)
B. Dopamine
C. Nitric oxide
D. Norepinephrine
E. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)

24. Is the neurotransmitter of
the arrector pilimuscle

24-D Neropinephrine is the neurotransmitter of the arrector pili muscles