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Flashcards in SOAL GAMBAR Deck (22)
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1

 

 

6. Lies within the cavernous sinus

7. Lies within the sella turcica

8. Is part of the striatum 

9. Is part of the limbic lobe

10. Lies within a cistern

 

 

6-D. The carotid artery lies within the cavernous sinus, in company with CN III, CN IV, CN V-1, CN V-2, and CN VI. 

7-E. The hypophysis (pituitary gland) is found in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica. 

 

8-B. The caudate nucleus is part of the striatum. 

 

9-A. The cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic lobe. 

 

10-C. The optic chiasm lies within the chiasmatic cistern.

 

2

 

11. Has reciprocal connections between the 
12. Largest nucleus of the diencephalon
13. Internal capsule
14. Cingulate gyrus hippocampal formation and the septal nuclei
15. Caudate nucleus 

 

 

11-E. The fornix contains fibers from the hippocampal formation and from the septal nuclei, projects massively to the mamillary nuclei of the hypothalamus, and plays an important part in the circuit of Papez. 

 

12-C. The pulvinar nucleus is the largest nucleus in the diencephalon. 

 

13-D. The posterior limb of the internal capsule lies between the lentiform nucleus and the thalamus. It contains the corticospinal tract and is perfused by the lateral striate arteries of the middle cerebral artery. 

 

14-A. The cingulate gyrus and its cingulum belong to the limbic system. 

 

15-B. The caudate nucleus and the putamen comprise the striatum, a basal ganglion. In Huntington disease, massive loss of neurons in the head of the caudate nucleus results in hydrocephalus ex vacuo.

 

3

 

Match each structure or description in items 8-12 with the appropriate lettered structure shown in the T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) of a coronal section of the brain

8.     Olive                                            

9.     It contains the trochlear nerve (CN IV)                                       10.     Its stenosis results in hydrocephalus

11.     Contains a calcified glomus

 

12. Receives cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fromthe arachnoid villi<!--EndFragment-->

 

8-E. The olive is a prominent surface structure of the medulla. 9-D. The ambient cistern contains the trochlear nerve (CN IV). 

 

10-C. Stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct prevents cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from entering the fourth ventricle; this results in a noncommunicating hydrocephalus. 

 

11-B. The trigone of the lateral ventricle contains a large tuft of choroid plexus called the glomus. It is usually calcified and highly visible in computed tomography (CT) images. 

 

12-A. The superior sagittal sinus receives cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the arachnoid villi. 13-C. The superior (quadrigeminal) cistern overlies the dorsal aspect of the midbrain. 

 

4

 

Match each structure or description in items 13-17 with the appropriate lettered structure shown on the T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) of a midsagittal section of the brain.

13. Superior cistern

14. Blockage results in hydrocephalus

15. Lateral ventricle

16. Contains the two foramina of Luschka

17. Receives cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the foramen of Magendie

 

13-C. The superior (quadrigeminal) cistern overlies the dorsal aspect of the midbrain.

14-B. Blockage of the interventricular foramen of Monro (e.g., due to a colloid cyst of the third ventricle) results in hydrocephalus involving the lateral ventricle.

15-A. The lateral ventricle is seen between the corpus callosum and the fornix.

16-D. The fourth ventricle contains the two foramina of Luschka that drain into the two cerebellopontine angle cisterns.

17-E. The cerebellomedullary cistern receives cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the foramen of Magendie. 

5

 

12. An aneurysm of this artery may cause a  third nerve palsy

13. Irrigates the posterior limb of the internal  capsule

14. Occlusion of this artery results in a fluent  receptive aphasia

15. An aneurysm of this artery may result in  Horner syndrome

16. Occlusion of this artery results in infarction of the paracentral lobule with Babinski  sign

 

12-E. An aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery may cause a third nerve palsy.

13-D. The anterior choroidal artery irrigates the posterior limb of the internal capsule.

14-C. Occlusion of the proximal stem of the left middle cerebral artery results in Wernicke aphasia, a fluent receptive aphasia.

15-B. An aneurysm of the internal carotid artery within the cavernous sinus can interrupt postganglionic sympathetic fibers, resulting in Horner syndrome.

16-A. The anterior cerebral artery perfuses the mesial aspect of the hemisphere from the frontal pole to the parieto-occipital sulcus, including the paracentral lobule. The paracentral lobule gives rise to corticospinal fibers to the contralateral foot and leg. Destruction of these fibers results in the Babinski sign. 

6

 

9. Is derived from the telencephalon 

10. Gives rise to the coroid plexus

11. Is derived from the alar plate

12. Gives rise to motor neurons that innervate the tongue 

13. Gives rise to the solitary nucleus 

 

 

9.     –C. The corticispinal tract (pyramid) has its origin in the neocortex of the telencephalon.

10.     –A. The tela choroidea gives rise to the choroid plexus.

11.     –B. The inferior olivary nucleus is derived from the alar plate of the developing medulla.

12.     –D. The basal plate gives rise to the hypoglossal nucleus.

13.     –E. The alar plate gives rise to the solitary nucleus.

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7

 

14. Innervates the lateral rectus muscle

15. Gives rise to aparasympathetic nucleus

16. Gives rise to the cerebellum

17. Is derived from the alar plate

18. Gives rise to motor neurons that migrate into the lateral pontine tegmentum

 

 

14. –B. The general somatic efferent (GSE) column innervates the lateral rectus muscle.

15. –E.  The general visceral efferent column (GVE), gives rise to the superior salivatory nucleus of CN VII. This parasympathetic nucleus innervates the lacrimal, the sublingual, and the submandibular glands and also the palatine and nasal glands.

16. –A. The cerebellum is derived from the alar plate. The alar plate gives rise to the rhombic lip, which becomes the cerebellum.

17. –C. The pontine nuclei are derived from the alar plate.

18. –D. The special visceral efferent (SVE) column gives rise to motor neurons that migrate into the lateral pontine tegmentum and become the facial nucleus, CN VII.

 

8

11.Project to the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle.
12.Mediates pain and temperature sensation
13.Cells of origin are found in the precentral gyrus
14. Mediates two-point tactile discrimination from the hand
15. Myelilnationis not fully achieved until the end of the second year
16. Transection results in spasticity
17.Plays a role in regulating extensor tone
18.Transmits vibration sensation from the ankle

 

11.-B. The dorsal spinocerebellar tract projects unconscious proprioceptive

12.-C. The lateral spinothalamic tract lies between the ventral spinocerebellar tract and the ventral horn. It mediates pain and temperature sensation.

13.-E. The lateral corticospinal tract has its cells of origin in the premotor, motor and sensory cortices. The precentral gyrus and the anterior paracentral lobule are motor cortices and contain the motor homunculus. It gives rise to one-third of the fibers of the corticospinal (pyramidal) tract.

14.-E. The fasciculus cuneatus mediates two-point tactile discrimination from the hand.

15.-E. The corticospinal (pyramidal) tracts are not fully myelinated until the end of the second year. For this reason, the babinski sign may be elicited in young children.

16.-E. Transection of the lateral corticospinal tract results in spastic paresis (exaggerated muscle stretch reflexes (MRSs) and clonus).

17.-D. The vestibulospinal (lateral) tract, found ventral to the ventral horn, plays a role in regulating extensor tone.

18.-A. The fasciculus gracillis transmits vibratory sensation (pallesthesia) from the lower extremitas.

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9

 


19. Neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

20. Lesions due to vascular occlusion

21. Loss of vibration sensation on the right side;loss of pain and temperature sensation on the left side.

22. Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in the legs

23. Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in the hands;muscle atrophy in both hands;spastic paresis on the right side only

24.Urinary incontinence and quadriplegic

25. No muscle atrophy or fasciculations

26.Demyelinating disease

 

 

19-C A neurologie manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is subacute combined degeneration. There is no involvement of LMNs

 

20-A Lesion A shows the territory of infarction resulting from occlusion of the ventral (anterior)

 

21-D A spinal cord hemisection (Brown – Sequard syndrome) on the right side results in a loss of vibration sentation on the right side and a loss of pin and temperature sensation on the left  side (dissociated sensory loss)

 

22-A Total occlusion of the ventral spinal artery, involving five cervical segments, results in infarction of the ventral two thirds of the spinal cord and interrupts both lateral spinothalamic tracts. The patient would have a loss of pain and temperature sensation caudal to the lesion

 

23-B Lesion B shows a cervical syringomyelic lesion involving the ventral white commissure, both ventral horns, and the right corticospinal tract. The patient would have a bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in the hands, muscle wasting in both hands, and a spastic paresis on the right side.

 

24-A In lesion A, both lateral and ventral funiculi have been infareted by arterial occlusion. Bilateral destruction of the lateral corticospinla tracts at upper cervical levels results in quadriplegia (spastic paresis in upper and lower extremities). Bilateral destruction of the ventrulaeral quadrants results in urinary and fecal incontinence.

 

25-C In lesion C, subacute comined degeneration, there is no involvement of lower motor neurons (LMNs), hence no flaccid paralysis, muscle atrophy, or fasciculations.

 

26-C In lesion C, subacute combined degeneration, there is symmetric degeneration of the white metter, both in the dorsal columns (fasciculi gracilis) and in the lateral funiculi (corticospinal tracts). In this degenerative disease, both the myein sheaths and the axis cylinders are involved. Subacute combined degeneration is classified under nutritional diseases (in this case a vitamin B12 neuropathy). In true demyelinative diseases (e.g., multiple scierosis), the myelin sheaths are involved but the axis cylinders and nerve cells are relatively spared.

 

10

Neuropathologic examination of the spinal cord reveals two lesions labeled A and B, lesions A is restricted to five segments.

1. The results of lesions A is best described as
(A) Bilateral arm dystaxia with dysdiadochokinesia
(B) Spastic paresis of the legs
(C) Flaccid paralysis of the upper extremities
(D) Loss of pain and temperature sensation below the lesions
(E) Urinary and fecal incontinence

2. The result of lesion B is best described as
(A). Dyssinergia of movements affecting both arms and legs
(B). Flaccid paralysis of the upper extremitas
(C). Impaired two point tactile discrimination in both arms
(D). Spastic paresis affecting primarily the muscle distal to the knee joint.
(E). Bilateral appallesthesia

3. Lesions A and B result from
(A). An intramedullary tumor
(B). An extramedullary tumor
(C). Thrombosis of a spinal artery
(D). Multipel sclerosis
(E). Amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
 

 

1.-C. Lesions a involves degeneration of the ventral horns bilaterally at midcervical levels, resulting in flaccid paralysis in the upper extremitas

2.-D. Lesions B involves degeneration   of the lateral corticospinal tracts billaterally, resulting in spastic paresis of the lower extremitas and primarily affecting the muscles distal to the knee. Spastic paresis of the upper extremities is masked by flaccid paralysis resulting from lesion A. Apmotor syndrome allesthesia is the inability to perceive a vibrating tunning fork

3.-E. Lesions A and B are the results of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a pure motor disease.

11

 

17. Paralysis of upward gaze

18. Loss of pain and temperature on the left side of the body

19. Deviation of the tongue to the left side and the uvula to the right side

20. Intention tremor on the right side

21. Complete third nerve palsy on the right side

22. Loss of vibration sensation in the right extremities

23. A Babinski sign on the left side

24. Lession leads to terminal axonal degeneration in the right transverse gyrus of Heschl

 

17-B Paralysis of upward gaze results from compression of the mesencephalic tectum by a tumor in the pineal region; this is called Parinaud syndrome.

18-C Loss of pain and temperature on the left side of the body is due to a lesion on the right side of the lateral spinothalamic tract.

19-E Deviation of the tongue to the left side results from transection of the right corticobulbar fibers (CN XII) located in the medial aspect of the crus cerebri. Deviation of the uvula to the right side results from transection of the right corticobulbar fibers (CN X) found in the medial aspect of the crus cerebri.

20-A Transection of the left dentatothalamic tract results in a intention tremor on the right side. The dentatiothalamic tract decussates in the caudal midbrain, below the level of this lesion.

21-E A complete third nerve palsy on the side results from transection of the oculomotor nerve fibers as they pass through the right side of the crus cerebri

22-A A loss of vibration sensation in the right extremities results from destruction of the left medial lemniscus.

23-E A Babinski sign on the left side results from transection of the corticospinal tract within the middle three fifths of the crus cerebri.

24-D Destruction of the right medial geniculate body results in terminal axonal degeneration of the auditory radiation in the right transverse gyrus of Heschl.
 

12

29. Occlusion of the left posterior cerebral artery
30. Transection of the left optic nerve at the chiasm
31. Craniopharyngioma
32. Left temporal lobotomy
33. Bilateral trauma to the cuneate gyri
34. Transection of the left optic tra

 

29-B Ocelusion of the left posterior cerebral artery results in a right homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing; macular sparing is due to a dual blood supply to the visual cortex. 

30-A Transection of the left optic nerve at the chiasm results in total blindness on the left side and a scotoma in the right upper temporal quadrant. Fibers from the lower nasal quadrant loop into the contralateral optic nerve before decuassating in the optic chiasma. The field defeet is called a junction scotoma.

31-B Croniopharyngiomas and pituitary tumors put pressure on the decussationg fibers of the optic chiasma, causing a bitemporal hemianopia.

32-D A left temporal lobotomy transects Meyer loop, which projects to the inferior bank of the calcarine fissure, resulting in a right upper quadrantanopia.

33-E  Bilateral trauma to the cuneate gyri results in a lower altitudinal hemianopia

34-C    Transection of the left optic tract results in a right hemianopia with macular sparing

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35. Transection results in polyuria and polydipsia

36. Transection results in ipsilateral ptosis

37. Transection results in homolateral extortion of the flobe

38. Destruction results in an absent corneal reflex on the side of testing

39. Pathology is seen in Wenicke encephalopathy

40. Transection results in a contralateral hemianopia

41. Midsagiital section results in a bitemporal hemianopia

42. Transection results in total blindness in the left eye

43. Compression is seen in Foster Kennedy syndrome

 

 

35-I Transection of the infundibulum interrupts the supraopticohypophyseal tract. This results in diabetes insipidus with polydipsia and polyuria (e.g., craniopharyngioma)

36-H. Destruction of the oculomotor nerve results in paralysis of the levator palpebrae musle with a serve ipsilateral ptosis

 

37-G The trochlear nerve intorts, elevates, and abducts the globe. In fourth nerve palsy, the ipsilateral eye is extorted. The patent’s chin points to the side of the lesion. Remember, head tilt is associated with fourth nerve palsy.

 

38-F The ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve mediates the afferent limb of the corneal reflex

 

39-E In Wernicke encephalopathy, petechial hemorrhages in the mammillary bodies are commonly found, along with capillary hyperplasia, and astrocytic gliosis. Wernicke encephalopathy is due to a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency.

 

40-D Secerance of the optic tract results in contralateral hemianopia

 

41-C A midsagittal secton through the optic chiasm results in bitemporal hemianopia

 

42-B Transection of the optic nerve (fasciculus) results in total blindness of the ipsilateral eye.

 

43-A Forter Kennedy syndrome involbes the olfactory tract and the optic nerve. This disorder may be due to a tumor (olfactory groove meningioma). The signs are ipsilateral anosmia, ipsilateral optic atrophy, and contralateral papilledema.

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16. Broca speech area

 

17. Wernicke speech area

18. Lasion in this area results in centralateral astereognosis

 

19. Infarction in this area results in an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion

20. Lesion in the area results in finger agnosia, agrapia, and dyscalculia

 

16-E Broca speech area (areas 44 and 45) is found in the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere, directly anterior to the promotor and motor cortices.

17-D Wrrnicke speech area is located in the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus (part of Brodmann area 22) of the dominant hemisphere. A lesion of this area results in a fluent sensory (receptive) aphasia

 

18-B A lesion of the left postcentral gyrus results in a right astereognosis (tectile agnosia), the inability to identify objects by touch. Lesions of the superior parietal lobule result in contralateral astereognosis and in sensory neglect.

 

19-A A lesion in the precentral gyrus is an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion. The precentral gyrus (motor strip) gives ruse to one third of the pyramidal tract (corticospinal tract) fibers.

 

20-C A deep lesion of the angular gyrus could involve the visual radiation, resulting in a contralateral homonymous hemianopia.

 

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22. Supplementary motor area

 

23. Lesion is the area results in paresthesias and numbness in the contralateral foot.

 

24. Lesion in this area results in contralateral lower homonymous quadrantanopia.

 

25. Lesion in this area results in a contralateral  bahinski sign

 

26. Lesion in this area results in loss of intiative and inappropriate social behavior

 

 

22-B The supplementary motor cortex (area 6) lies on the medial aspect of the hemisphere, just anterior to the paracentral lobule

 

23-D A lesion in the posterior part of the paracentral lobule would result in loss of joint and position sense (astatognosia) and loss of tactile discrimination (astereognosis) in the contralateral foot.

 

24-E A lesion of the superior bank of the calcarine sulcus (cuneus) would result in a contralateral lower homonymous quadrantanopia. A lesion destroying both cunei would produce a lower homonymous altitudinal hemianopia

 

25-C A lesion of the anterior part of the paracentral lobule results in a contralateral parasis of the foot muscles and in Babinski sign (i.e., plantar reflex extensor or extensor toe sign)

 

26-A Lesions of the prefrontal cortex may result in personality changes, with disorderly and inappropriate conduct and facetiousness and jocularity (witzelsucht). Lesions interrupt fibers that interconnect the dorsomedial nucleus and the prefrontal cortex (e.g., prefrontal lobotomy or leucotomy)

 

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98.  Ipsilateral leg dystaxia

99.  Ipsilateral flaccid paralysis

100.  Contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation one segment below the lesion

101. Exaggerated muscle stretch reflex (MSRs) below the lesion

102. Loss of two point tactile discrimination in the ipsilateral foot

 

98-B Interruption of the dorsal spinocerebellar tract results in ipsilateral leg dystaxin (I, e., incoordination). The cerebellum is deprived of its muscle spindle input from the lower extremity.

99-D Destruction of ventral horn cells (lower motor neurons; LMNs) results in an ipsilateral flaccid paralysis (an LMN lesion), with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle stretch reflexes (are-flexia).

100-E  Interruption of the lateral spinothalamic tract results in a contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation one segement below the lesion. The decussation occurs in the ventral white commissure in the spinal cord.

101-C  Interruption of the lateral spinothalamic tract results in a contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation one segment below the lesion. The decussation occurs in the ventral white commissure in the spinal cord.

102-A  A lesion of the gracile fasciculus results in a loss of two-point tactile discrimination in the ipsilateral foot. The dorsal column medical lemniscus pathway decussates in the caudal medulla. 

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103. Medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze

104. Lateral rectus paralysis ; contralateral spastic hemiparesis

105. Occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery

106. Loss of the corneal reflex; contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation from the body and extremities

107. Hemiatrophy of the tongue; of the tongue; contralateral hemiparesis; contralateral loss of vibration sensation

108. Hoarseness; Horner syndrome; singultus
 

103-C This lesion includes the two medial longitudinal fascicule (MLFs). The patient has MLF syndrome and will have a medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze to either side. Convergence remains intact.
104-E This lesion includes three major structures the medial lemnicus. Corticospinal fibers. And exiting abducent root fibers (CN VI) traversing the corticospinal fibers. Interruption of the abducent fibers causes an ipsilateral lateral rectus paralysis with media strabismus. Damage to the uncrossed corticospinal fibers results in contralateral spastic hemiparesis.

 

105-A Occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebllar arteri (PICA) infarets the lateral zone of the medulla, causing PICA syndrome. The major structures involved are the inferior cerebellar peduncle, spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus, spinal lemniscus, the nucleus ambiguous, and exiting vagal fibers of CN X.

106-D This lesion includes the facial motor nucleus of CN VII and its intra-axial fibers, thus accounting for the loss of the corneal reflex (efferent limb). The spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus and the spinal lemniscus also are damage by this lesion. Damage to the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus causes an ipsilateral facial anesthesia, including loss of the corneal reflex (afferent limb). Damage to the spinal lemniscus (lateral spinothalamic tract) causes a contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation from the body and extremities.

 

107-B This lesion damages the hypoglossal nucleus of CN X and exiting root fibers, the medial lemniscus, and the corticospinal tract. Damage to the hypoglossal nerve results in an ipsilateral flaccid paralysis of the tongue, an LMN lesion. Damage to the medial lemniscus results in a contralateral loss of tactile discrimination and vibration sensation. Damage to the corticospinal (pyramid) tracts results in a contralateral spastic hemiparesis. This symptom complex is known as medial medullary syndrome.

108-A Lateral medullary syndrome [posterior inferiof cerebellar artery (PICA) syndrome] usually includes hoarseness. Horner syndrome and singultus (hiccups). Damage to the nucleus ambiguous causes a flaccid paralysis of the muscle of the larynx with hoarseness (dysphonia and dysarthria). Interruption of descending autonomic fibers to the cliospinal center at TI causes sympathetic paralysis of the eye (Horner syndrome). The anatomic causes of singultus are not clear. 

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145. Thalamus 

 

146. Internal capsule 

 

147. Putamen 

 

148. Caudate nucleus 

 

149. Splenium 

 

 

145-D The thalamus.

146-E The anterior limb of the internal capsule.

147-B The putamen. 

148-A The head of the caudate nucleus.

149-C The splenium of the corpus callosum.

 

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150. Medical geniculated body 

 

151. Mesencephalon 

 

152. Mamillary body 

 

153. Optic tract 

 

154. Amygdala 

 

 

150-C  The medial geniculate body.

151-B  The mesencephalon.

 

152-D The mamillary body.

153-E  The optic tract.

 

154-A The amygdale (amygdaloid nuclear complex).

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155. Pineal gland 

 

156. Hypophysis 

 

157. Mesencephalon 

 

158. Thalamus 

 

159. Fornix 

 

 

155-C  The pineal gland (epiphysis).

156-E  The hypophysis (pituitary gland).

157-D The mesencephalon (midbrain).

158-B  The thalamus.

159-A The fornix.

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160.  right third-never palsy

161.  Destructive lesion of the right frontal lobe

162.  Argyll Robertson pupil

163.  Right fourth – nerve palsy

164.  Parinaud syndrome 

165.  Right sixth nerve palsy

166.  Left third nerve palsy

167.  Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO)

168.  Horner syndrome

169.  Retrobulbar neuritis 

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160-J A right third-nerve palsy with complete ptosis. The ptosis results from paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.

161-I A destructive lesion of the frontal eye fields results in a deviation of the eyes toward the lesion. An irritative lesion results in deviation of the eyes away from the lesion. 

 

162-H The Argyll Robertson pupil is characterized by irregular miotic pupils that do not respond to light, but do converge in response to accommodation. It is a sign of tertiary syphilis. 

 

163-G A right fourth nerve palsy is characterized by the inability of the patient to depress the glove from the adducted position.

 

164-F Parinaud syndrome is characterized by the inability to perform upward or downward conjugate gaze and may be associated with ptosis and papillary abnormalities. 

 

165-E A right sixth-nerve palsy is characterized by the inability to abduct the eye. 

 

166-D A third-nerve palsy is characterized by a down-and-out eye, a complete ptosis, and a dilated (blown) pupil. The lid was retracted to view the pupil.

 

167-C Internuclear ophthalmoplegi (INO) results from a lesion one or both media longitudinal fasciculi (MLFs). Transection of the right MLF results in a medial rectus palsy on attempted lateral gaze to the left. Convergence is normal, and nystagmus is seen in the abducting eye.  

 

168-B Horner syndrome consists of miosis, mild ptosis, hemianhidrosis, and enophthalamos. It results from a loss of sympathetic input to the head.

 

169-A Retrobulbar neuritis is an inflammation of the optic nerve that reduces the light-crrying ability of the nerve. This condition can be diagnosed by the swinging flashlight test. Light shown into the normal eye results in constriction of both pupils. Swinging the flashlight to the affected eye results in a dilated pupil in both eye. This pupil is called an afferent, or Marcus Gunn, pupil. 

22

 

183. In thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, hemorrhagic lesions are found in this structure 

 

184. Bilateral lesions in this structure result in hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and psychic blindness (visual agnosia) 

 

185. Infarction (due to cardiac arrest) of this area results in short term memory loss

 

186. lesions of this area result in a lower homonymous quadrantanopia 

 

187. Bilateral transaction of this structure may result in the acute amnestic syndrome 

 

188. Lesion of this area results in a contralateral extensor plantar reflex and ankle clonus 

 

189. Ablation of this area may result in akinesia, mutism, apathy, and indifference to pain 

 

183-G In thiamine (vitamin B) deficiency, hemorrhagie lesions are found in the mamillary bodies,

184-F Bilateral lesions of the amygdale result in Kluver Bucy syndrome, with hyperphagia hypersexuality, and psychie blindness (visual agnosia).

185-E Bilateral damage to the parahippocampal gyri and the underlying hippocampal formation results in severe loss of short term memory (e. g. hypoxia, hypoxemia, and herpes simplex virs encephalitis).

186-D Lesions of the cuneus interrupt the visual radiations en route to the upper bank of the calcarine fissure, which represents the inferior visual field quadrants.

187-C The fornix (a limbic structure) interconnects the septal area and the hippocampal formation. Bilateral transaction of this structure may result in an acute amnestic syndrome.

188-B The motor strip for the foot is in the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial aspect of the hemisphere. A lesion here results in a contralateral hemiparesis of the foot and leg with pyramidal signs.

189-A Ablation of the cingulated gyrus (cinglectiomies) has been used to treat psychotic and neurotic patients.