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Flashcards in Life stage requirements and population groups Deck (45)
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Name 4 health benefits of breastfeeding for the baby?

1. Provides appropriate composition and balance of nutrients.
2.Provides hormones that promote physiological development.
3. Protects against a variety of infections.
4. Protects against food allergies.


Name 3 health benefits of breastfeeding for the mother?

1. Delay the return of regular ovulation (not a dependable method of contraception!).
2. Conserves iron stores (by prolonging amenorrhea).
3. May protect against breast and ovarian cancer.


How much milk does a nursing mother produce per day?



How much energy does a women need to receive all the nutrients required for a successful lactation?



What are the effects of intense exercise during lactation?

It can raise lactic acid concentration of breast milk which may influence the milk's taste.


What are the UK recommendations of protein during lactation? Give some examples of food.

Extra 11g of protein/day.
chicken thigh - 10g
2 large eggs - 12g
1/4 cup pumpkin seeds - 19g


Which nutrients are most likely to decline during prolonged lactation?

B6, B12, Vit A, Vit D


What are the effects of nutritional inadequacies?

It reduces the quantity not the quality of breast milk.


Does dietary calcium have any effect on breast milk?

No. Maternal bones can lose some density during lactation but increases when lactation ends. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy and lactation is important.


Which nutrients may be affected for vegetarian/vegan women? How can this be addressed?

B12 - supplementation
Vit D - sunlight exposure if poss and consumption of vit D fortified foods or supplementation.
Calcium - calcium rich foods


Why would a nursing mother require iron supplements?

To enhance depleted stores - pregnancy and blood loss during childbirth often diminish iron stores.


What does strong and spicy foods do to breast milk?

Alter the flavour of breast milk.


How can alcohol affect breast milk?

Alcohol easily enters breast milk and significantly diminishes the amount of breast milk consumed by the infant.
1. Changes taste of breast milk
2. Causes sleepiness
3. Inhibits the hormone oxytocin


What are the effects of illicit drugs?

These are always harmful and can cause irritability, tremors, hallucinations and even cause death in infants.


What are the effects of smoking?

Reduces milk volumes, so smokers may produce too little milk to meet their infants' energy needs.
1. The milk can contain nicotine which can alter the smell and flavour.
2. Infants of breastfeeding mothers who smoke gain less weight.
3. They are also at higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome.


What are the effects of caffeine?

Enters the breast milk and may make infant irritable and wakeful. Large doses of caffeine may interfere with e bioavailability of iron from breast milk and impair the infant's iron status.


What is a healthy infant's birth weight?

Weight doubles by about 5 months of age and triples by one year, typically reaching 20-25 pounds (9-11kg).


What is an infant's basal metabolic rate?

Very high about twice that of an adult.
Infant - 100kcal/kg
Adult - 40kcal/kg


In the first months of infancy what percentage of energy intake is being used for growth and what does it fall to by 1 year of age.



What are the energy nutrient requirements for infants in the first 6 months of life based on the average intakes of healthy full term breast fed infants?

carbohydrate - 39%
fats - 55%
protein- 6%


Name 4 things excess protein in infant formulas can lead to?

1. Acidosis
2. Dehydration
3. Diarrhoea
4. It can stress the immature liver and the kidneys that need to process excess nitrogen.


What is the carbohydrate form in breast milk and what does it enhance?

Lactose. Easily digested by infants and enhances calcium absorption.


What form is protein in breast milk?



What form are lipids in breast milk?

Linoleic and Linolenic acid as well as Arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA.


In order to avoid haemorrhagic disease of the newborn, a single dose of vitamin K is usually given to infants at birth (1mg). What are the UK recommendations for breastfed babies with vitamin K?

4 further oral doses should be offered of vitamin K (1mg) at 2 weekly intervals because:
1. vitamin K content of breast milk varied.
2. The infants lack colonic flora synthesizing this vitamin.


What makes zinc more bioavailable to breastfed babies?

zinc-binding protein.


What are the UK recommendations for breastfed babies and vitamin A?

They should receive 200ug/day as a supplement from 6 months of age.


Breast milk is also low in sodium, what does this mean?

Another benefit for immature kidneys.


What immunological protection does breast milk produce during the first few days after delivery?

Colostrum, a pre milk substance containing mostly serum, with antibodies and white blood cells.


What are the benefits of colostrum to the newborn?

1. protects the infant from infections against which the mother has developed immunity.
2. The maternal antibodies inactivate pathogenic bacteria within the infants digestive tract.
3. This is partly why breastfed infants have fewer intestinal infections than formula-fed infants.