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1

1 - 3 hormones capable of stimulating lipolysis

2 - which hormone antagonises the effect of these hormones

epinephrine
norepinephrine
adrenocorticotropic hormone
TSH
thyroxine
glucagon
growth hormone


2 - insulin

2

Name the group of phytochemicals:
water soluble molecules containing 15 carbon atoms
belonging to polyphenol family
provides colour to plants

flavonoids

3

name a flavonoid and where it can be found

catechin - green tea
proanthocyanidin - nerves
naringenin - citrus fruits
quercitin - broccoli
genistein - soy foods, legumes

4

1 way in which ruin acts to protect against disease

anti oxidant
iron-chelator
free radical scavenger
may protect against oxidised LDL

5

how does grapefruit cause nutrient-drug interactons

flavonoids in grapefruit inhibit hepatic microsomes containing cytochrome p450 ph 1 liver detox enzymes.
This increases bioavailability and plasma concentrations of many drugs and could lead to drug overdose.

6

2 ways in which legumes protect against CV disaese

^ fibre lowers cholesterol
^ folate lowers homocysteine
^ K & Mg lowers CVD risk
low GL reduces insulin resistance

7

Which order must ingredients be listed on food labels

descending order

8

definition of safe upper level re dietary reference values

highest level of nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals

9

3 nutrients or which a safe upper level has been set

Vit A
beta carotene
calcium
copper
fluoride
iodine
iron

10

why does table sugar have lower GI than glucose

table sugar is sucrose:
half glucose half fructose
fructose only causes v small increase in blood sugar

11

name 2 CV conditions where CoQ10 could benefit, describing how

Atherosclerosis - inhibits LDL oxidation, prevents monocyte recruitment

Congestive heart failure - CHF patients have been shown to have lower levels of CoQ10

MI - coQ10 decreases post-infarct heart damage

Angina pectoris - coQ10 improves exercise tolerance, reduces ECG changes

Hypertension - Q10 decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressure

12

Name a condition unrelated to joint health where glucosamine is useful

IBD

13

name 2 potential side effects of shiitake mushrooms

abdominal discomfort
eosinophilia
shiitake dermatitis
photosensitivity

14

which orthomolecular nutrient is anecdotally reported to improve autism

dimethylglycine

15

3 benefits of breastfeeding to mothers

delays return of ovulation - lengthens birth intervals

conserves iron stores by prolonging amenorrhoea

may protect against breast cancer

may protect against ovarian cancer

16

what carbohydrate found in breast milk

lactose

17

2 ways breastfeeding offers immunological protection to babies

colostrum protects infant from infections against which mother has gained immunity

maternal antibodies in breastmilk inactivate pathogenic bacteria in infants gut

provides bifidus factors - probiotics for lactobacillus bifidus, encouraging its growth

lactoferrin binds to iron, preventing it from fuelling bacteria growth

lactadherin fights off virus causing most cases of infant diarrhoea

18

young girls who consume more animal products and fewer fruits/veg have puberty earlier than average age.
why is this a problem

puberty before 12 is strongly ass with breast cancer

19

3 factors influencing adolescent food choices

increased appetite due to growth spurt
decreased appetite due to drug/alcohol use
influence of peers
concerns around body image
media/advertising
more indépendance/increased money spring
availability of fast/convenience foods

20

what is sarcopenia

age-related loss of muscle mass, strength, function

21

3 factors contributing to development of sacrcopenia

decreased activity of insulin/insulin resistance
decreased activity of growth hormone
decreased androgen levels
increased prolactin
sedentary lifestyle/reduced mobility
decreased protein intake
increased simple carb intake

22

5 reasons which could explain why cancer rates are 50-75% lower in vegetarians

they are generally more insulin sensitive
diets usually higher in antioxidants
less exposed to dietary carcinogens
less exposed to oestrogens
different bowel flora
veggies have lower levels of secondary bile acids
superior immune defence against cancer cells than omnivores
more than twice the NK cell activity than omnivores

23

3 nutrients vegans should consider supplementing

B12
EPA
DHA
D
Ca
Zn
Fe

24

2 year old boy - spoon-shaped nails.
Mum says fussy eater, drinks lots of milk.
most likely explanation?

Iron deficiency anaemia
due to competitive absorption with calcium

25

what is schamroth's sign and what can it indicate

small diamond-shaped space between nails of two forefingers when placed together
indicates nails are not clubbed

26

describe concept of TCM body clock

energy circulates in distinct pattern from organ to organ

this energy gives the organ fuel to function

each organ takes an active role in the body at a given time

if any illness/disease occurs, related organ can be treated at its specific time on TCM clock

27

where on tongue would you assess health of liver/gallbladder

sides

28

what is name of unit of energy required to raise temp of 1g water by 1C

a calorie

29

4 factors influencing RMR

body composition
age
gender
physical activity
genetic factors
thyroid activity
sympathetic NS activity
meal quantity
macronutrient content of meal

30

2 hormones ass with decrease in food intake

serotonin
dopamine
histamine
leptin
CCK - cholecystokinin
insulin