Flashcards in maternal mortality and morbidity in pregnancy Deck (16):
what do we mean by indirect maternal mortality?
woman has an underlying pre-existing medical condition and this is exacerbated by pregnancy leading to maternal death
what are some causes of direct maternal mortality?
amniotic fluid embolism
what are some common causes of indirect maternal mortality?
underlying cardiac conditions
pre-existing psychiatric causes
what do we mean by direct maternal mortality?
maternal mortality related to obstetric complications
what are some things we need to consider with maternal resuscitation during pregnancy?
Lateral tilt to prevent aortocaval compression and supine hypotension
pregnant women have increased blood volume (CO increases) meaning that there is increased volume for resuscitation drugs
pregnant women are at increased risk of aspiration due to relaxed LOS
pregnant women have decreased functional reserve capacity but increased basal metabolic requirements and so are more inclined to become hypoxic rapidly--> hence needs adequate ventilation!
alpha and beta agonist drugs e.g. adrenaline and noradrenaline may reduce uteroplacental perfusion
why is pre-existing pulmonary hypertension bad in pregnancy?
decreased systemic vascular resistance will increase R to L shunting
what are the worst cardiac lesions to have when pregnant and their maternal mortality rates?
pulmonary hypertension- up to 50% mortality
cyanotic heart disease- up to 50% mortality
NYHA 3 and 4- 15% mortality
AS/MR- 15% mortality
what are some pre-pregnancy counselling things that we need to consider in a female with CV disease wishing to become pregnant?
• Ix: Echo, ECG, seek cardiac opinion
• Assess functional cardiac status using the NYHA 1-4
• Advise on prognosis for pregnancy
• Consider whether the lesion has genetic basis and can be inherited by offspring
• Consider anticoagulation issues
• Discuss spontaneous bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis
Optimise management of arrhythmia and cardiac failure
Describe the New York Heart Association categories?
2= SOB on exertion; slight limitation of activity
3= SOB on minimal exertion +/- chest pain, palpitations etc
4= SOB on rest
what is the risk of women with mitral stenosis who are pregnant and why?
risk of acute APO
MS--> long diastolic filling time
--> affected by increased HR (tachycardia)
--> hence aggravated by pain and anxiety during labour/pregnancy
what anticoagulation issues do we have with pregnant women?
women who have prosthetic valves and on warfarin need to be considered prior to pregnancy.
Warfarin is teratogenic in pregnancy so they may need to be switched to low molecular weight heparin
how might we manage a woman during labour who has a known cardiac condition?
1. Vaginal delivery better overall
2. Ensure haemodynamic stability as best as you can- e.g. IV lines for fluid resuscitation, watching fluids, feet positioned below the heart, slow onset epidural, forceps or suction to reduce maternal pushing
3. Continuous maternal and fetal monitoring
4. Antibiotics for SBE prophylaxis
5. Syntocicin for third stage of labour to augment contractions
what are some post labour practice points we need to consider in a woman who has a known cardiac condition?
Monitor closely for APO
Slow oxytocin infusion to prevent postpartum haemorrhage
what are the two most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide?
perinatal infection and haemorrhage
a woman at 8 weeks gestation is diagnosed with a PE. what is your ongoing management and initial ix for PE?
CTPA for PE diagnosis
1. Perform a thrombophilia screen
2. Commence her on enoxaparin throughout pregnancy and counsel her on the risk of APH and other bleeding
3. Manage as high risk pregnancy under tertiary hospital model of care. Frequent antenatal reviews and fortnightly u/s growth scans to assess fetal growth.
4. Aim for planned induction at 38-39 weeks.
5. At labour withhold LMWH prior to induction and throughout labour. TED stockings, encourage mobilisation. Continuous CTG monitoring throughout labour.
6. Anticipate PPH and active 3rd stage management.
7. Recommence anticoagulation 12 hrs postpartum and refer for ongoing haematological follow up.
May commence warfarin instead during the postpartum period/breastfeeding period if indicated