Meat Inspection Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Epidemiology 2016 > Meat Inspection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Meat Inspection Deck (100):
1

What is the goal of Risk Based Meat Inspection?

to reduce the burden of disease in the population

2

What are the 3 steps of Risk Based Meat Inspection?

Identify and evaluate foodborne disease risks
Develop risk management strategies
Measure effectiveness (Disease burden) and adjust as needed

3

What are the components for Food control for meat safety?

Food Law and Regulations
Control management
Inspection Services
Laboratory Services
Information, Education, Communication and Training

4

What is the role of Veterinary services (USDA-FSIS) in Meat Safety?

Management
On Farm Food Safety programs
Meat Inspection Programs
Certification of animal products for international trade

5

What are the Food Laws and Regulations?

Federal Meat Inspection Act
Poultry Products Act
Humane Slaughter of Animals Act
State Acts and Regs (for intra-state products)

6

What is included in the control management?

USDA-FSIS
State Depts of Health/Ag

7

What is included in inspection services?

USAD-FSIS
State Depts of Health/Ag

8

What are the objectives of Meat Inspection?

Protect public health
Consumer confidence
Surveillance for animal health problems
Improved access to international export markets

9

What does Federal Meat Inspection do?

Ensure that animals used for food products are free of foodborne pathogens
Clearly label foods that pass inspection
Minimized contamination during processing
Monitor for drug residues and pathogens

10

What are labeling requirements?

Everything must be labeled
Applies to carcasses parts of carcasses or containers/cans/pots containing meat
Must be readily visible
Labels may be stamps, paper labels, or tags
Inspector shall mark all inspected and passed , inspected for wholesomeness, and inspected and condemned

11

What are polyphosphates added to the meat for?

to mainain water holding properties

12

What are nitrates added to the meat for?

Preserves red color and are bacteriostatic

13

What is HACCP?

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
A system for preventing contamination of food during processing

14

What does HACCP apply to?

Meat
Seafood
Juice processing facilities
Voluntary programs for other food products
Any step in the food production chain "farm to fork"

15

Steps to the 7 step Program?

Analyze Hazards
Identiiy critical control points
Establish preventative measures with critical limits for each control point
Establish corrective actions to be taken
Establish procedures to verify that the system is working
Establish effective recordkeeping to document the HACCP system

16

Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)

Requires inspection of all meat sold from livestock
Foods must be: Sanitary, free of pathogens, not adulterated, properly labeled

17

Who does FMIA and Commerce have authority over?

Renderers, transporters, warehouses and animal food manufacturers

18

What are the standards for foreign importers?

Must have standards "equivalent" to US law or demonstrated equivalent risk

19

What are the exemptions to FMIA?

Slaughter of your own animals for consumption by self, family or guests - not for money
Retail dealers/stores that do not slaughter, with >75% of sales to retail customers
Individual who purchases meat or meat products outside the United States for his/her own consumption - not to exceed 50lbs.

20

What about meat from other species?

Do not fall under FMIA rules

21

What act is Poultry covered by?

Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA)

22

What is associated with Stress from Transportation?

Loss of meat quality, injuries to animals, animals may be condemned
Weight loss due to breakdown of fatty acids and muscular tissue and loss of water holding capacity
Pigs are vulnerable to suffocation
Bruising
Immune stress/microbial shedding

23

What are the two effects on meat from stress?

Dark Firm and Dry (DFD)
Pale Soft Exudative (PSE)

24

Dark Firm and Dry (DFD)

Darker color of meat
Firm Consistency
Seen in all livestock but more common in cattle
Pre-mortem depletion of glycogen
Downgrade of the carcass and passed for human consumption

25

Pale Soft Exudative (PSE)

Meat is moist and exudative
All livestock, but more common in swine
Post mortem depletion of muscle glycogen
Condemned at post mortem inspection

26

What is a normal post slaughter carcass change?

After slaughter metabolism continues in muscle cells causing a lower pH of muscle and tenderizes the meat

27

How do you reduce Dark Firm and Dry Meat?

Ensure adequate muscle glycogen (Proper feeding prior to transport)
Reduce glycogen consumption (Reduce stress)
Manage implants (cattle)

28

Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)

Heritable susceptibility to PSE - Recessive gene causing malignant hyperthermia

29

What is the USA Federal Rule on Antemortem Livestock Inspection?

All livestock offered for slaughter in an official establishment shall be examined and inspected on the day of and before slaughter

30

What is the purpose of Antemortem Inspection of Livestock?

Inspection of individual live animals prior to slaughter
Helps keep ill animals out of the food chain
Helps reduce contamination of abattoir

31

What is the inspection procedure?

Observe animals at rest
Observe animals in motion from one or both sides
Determine if animal is normal or abnormal
Suspect & condemn animals must be ear tagged as such

32

Disposition

Handling of a carcass or its parts according to currect regulations

33

Subject to Inspection

Animal is bought by plant operator, subject to passing inspection. Seller is only paaid for those parts passing inspection

34

Passed for slaughter

Determined to be fit for human food

35

Suspect Animal

Animal suspected of having diseases or conditions that would make part or all of the carcass unfit for food
Detailed post mortem inspection needed

36

Condemned Animal

Clearly exhibit disease or conditions that make them unfit for human food
Must be destroyed & not slaughtered for food.
Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock are condemned

37

What are the 4 D's of condemnation

Dead
Dying
Disabled
Diseased

38

What the systemic infections that result in condemnation?

Anaplasmosis
Leptospirosis
Listeriosis
Multiple Abscesses
Pseudorabies
Tetanus
Rabies
Septicemia

39

What are the systemic metabolic conditions that result in condemnation?

Ketosis
Parturient paresis

40

When would you hold an animal for possible recovery before slaughter?

Post-parturient - until placenta passes

41

What are the rules about Downer Cattle?

Prohibits the slaughter of cattle that are not able to stand or walk
Higher probability of BSE

42

If an animal is branded with a "T" on the left hip, what does that mean?

Reacted to the TB skin test
Suspect
Extra postmortem inspection required
May be passed for COOKING only

43

If an animal is branded with a "B" on the left hip, what does that mean?

Positive for Brucellosis
Must be sent to slaughter within 15 days
Meat is considered safe if from cattle and pigs
Goats are not slaughtered - Destroyed!

44

Meat inspection provides what of animal disease?

Surveillance

45

What are the 2 steps in slaughter?

1. Stunning
2. Exsanguination

46

Human Handling and Slaughter of Livestock Directive:

Livestock must be rendered insensible to pain before being shackled, hoisted, or cut

47

What is the exception to Humane Handling and Slaughter of Livestock Directive?

Ritual Slaughter (Halal or Kosher)

48

How are animals slaughtered for ritual slaughter?

Killed directly by exsanguination
Animals neck is severed with a surgically sharp knife
Animals for slaughter must be healthy and uninjured at the time of death
Only exempt for the "stun before sticking" law

49

What are the 4 approved methods of stunning?

Carbon Dioxide
Electricity
Captive Bolt
Firearms

50

Electricity stunning

Current through the brain sufficient to generate an epileptic seizure/stun animal
Acceptable to stun the brain and then use second electrical pulse to induce cardiac arrest

51

What is a consequence of electric stunning?

may cause petechial hemorrhage

52

What is carbon dioxide used for besides slaughter?

Depopulation

53

What are the two types of Captive Bolt?

Penetrating
Non penetrating

54

What is penetrating captive bolt?

Bolt enters cranium/brain

55

What is non-penetrating captive bolt?

Causes concussion, less brain contamination
Preferred by most plants

56

What is the consequence of using a gunshot for slaughter?

Head and brain are not suitable for food
Emergence and ricochet are possible

57

Shackling

Hanging from shackle

58

Shackle

Hook on overhead rail

59

Chest Sticking

cut the vessels where they arise from the heart

60

What is a common source of meat contamination from soil on hide, rumen contents, and feces

Dressing of the carcass

61

Organoleptic Inspection

Detecting disease, abnormalities and contamination involving your senses: Sight, Feel, Smell, Hearing

62

How is sight involved in inspection?

observing a diseased lesion

63

How is feeling involved in inspection?

Palpating an abnormal lump in tissues, feeling abnormal firmness in an organ

64

How is smell involved in inspection?

Smelling the urine odor of uremia
Smelling the contents of a broken abscess

65

How is hearing involved in inspection?

Listening to a carcass fall off the line on to the floor

66

What are the three parts to post mortem inspection?

Head inspection
Carcass Inspection
Viscera Inspection

67

What is involved with the head inspection?

Slice and Inspect the masseter muscle for cysticercosis and eosinophilic myosistis
Incise the lymph nodes for swelling and abscesses
Palpate the tongue for wooden tongue or eosinophilic myositis
Also look for Lumpy Jaw and Cancer eye

68

What is involved with the viscera inspection?

Cut into the left ventricle for pericarditis, cysticerosis, endocarditis
Palpate and incise 3 mediastinal nodes and tracheobronchial nodes for pleuritis, pneumonia and TB
Incise the hepatic nodes and open the bile ducts for ascards, liver flukes, abscesses, cirrhosis, hydatid cysts and fatty liver
Digestive tract for parasites, icterus - but SHOULD NOT BE OPENED!
Incise the mesenteric lymph node for TB and septicemia
Palpate rumino-reticular junction for hardware
Observe all other organs

69

What is involved with the carcass inspection?

observe back, sides, pleura, peritoneum, cut surfaces of carcass, and neck muscles
Palpate internal iliac and superficial inguinal or supramammary lymph nodes
Observe and palpate kidneys
Observe and palpate diaphragm

70

Adulterated

Including an added, foreign or interior substance that cannot be removed by trimming

71

Contaminated

Having materials on the surface - dirty, stained, infected - that cannot be removed by trimming

72

Inedible

Parts are not normally considered edible

73

Passed

Acceptable for use as human food

74

Condemned

NOT to be used for human food, must be destroyed by rendering incineration
Sometimes ok for pet food

75

Hold

Hold carcass pending further lab tests

76

Restricted

Can be used for human food with restrictions: only if heated, cooked, refrigerated for several days, or added to a comminuted product

77

Specific Risk Materials

Inedible based upon risk of BSE transmission to humans

78

What parts are considered Specific Risk Materials (SRM)?

Tonsils and Distal Ileum of all ages
Brain, Skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, vertebral column and dorsal root ganglia of animals >30 months

79

Generally unfit for food if carcass contains....

Infectious agent or toxins
Morbid tissue
Discolored tissue
Abnormalities involving several organs
Evidence of abnormal systemic physiological stated

80

When is trimming permitted?

when there is local involvement with disease NOT transmissible to humans

81

What specific conditions result in liver condemnation?

Abscesses
Fasciolosis
Cirrhosis
Hydatid Cyst
Contamination with dirt or feces

82

What happens to a carcass with Tuberculosis active, extensive or multiple tissue lesions?

The entire carcass is condemned

83

What happens to a a carcass if the Tuberculosis lesions are localized and encapsulated/calcified?

The lesions are trimmed and the remainder of the carcass must be cooked!

84

What happens to a carcass with localized Taenia solium lesions?

Trim + Restricted

85

What happens to a carcass with generalized Taenia Solium lesions?

Condemned

86

What is the leading cause of post mortem condemnation?

Epithelioma (Squamous Cell Carcinoma)

87

What is the fate of a carcass with malignant neoplasia?

Condemn

88

What is the fate of a swine carcass with benign embryonal nephroma?

Trim affected parts

89

What are other common findings?

Pigmentation changes/discoloration
Bruises and skin conditions
Emaciation

90

Poultry Products Inspection Act

Requires inspection of poultry and poultry products

91

Poultry

any domesticated bird whether alive or dead

92

PPI Exemptions

Slaughter and processing for personal use
Retail dealers that only cut up chicken carcasses into parts and sell to consumers
Farmers who raise

93

Transportation increases...

fecal excretion of salmonella

94

How are poultry inspected?

As "lots" - all of the birds from one poultry house on one farm

95

What happens to birds arriving dead

Condemned

96

What happens to suspect birds?

Segregated and slaughtered separately

97

Examples of bad practices that result in condemnation of poultry carcasses

Bird dies before slaughter
Evidence of bruising or other injuries
Bird was not bled out or was breathing when scalded
Carcass was overscalded
Carcass is visibly contaminated

98

What other condition of poultry results in condemnation?

Septicemia

99

What are poultry specific disease that must be inspected for?

Chlamydia psittaci
Mycobacterium avium
Leukosis complex
Airsacculitis

100

What happens to a poultry carcass that is contaminated?

Trimmed and washed with chlorinated water
otherwise Condemned