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RUSVM Epidemiology 2016 > Respiratory Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Diseases Deck (36):
1

What are the primary long term reservoirs for Francisella tularensis?

Rodents
Lagomorphs

2

How is Francisella tularensis transmitted?

Sheep: Tick borne
Cats: eating infected rodents
People: ticks or direct contact with animal/carcasses
Aerosol exposure

3

What is the primary cycle for Y. pestis?

Rodent-flea-rodent

4

How are people infected with Y. pestis?

Infected flea bite
aerosol
directly from infected animal blood or abscesses

5

What are the clinical signs of Y. pestis in cats?

Fever
Lethargy
anorexia
sepsis
Lymphadenopathy

6

How do you prevent infection of people from cats?

Isolation of cats
Vet Staff PPE

7

How are herbivores infected with Bacillus anthracis?

Ingest spores in soil while grazing
inhalation of spores

8

How are carnivores infected with Bacillus anthracis?

eat infected herbivores
inhalation of spores

9

How are veterinarians infected with Bacillus anthracis?

aerosol
percutaneous exposure to blood

10

What are the clinical signs of Bacillus anthracis?

Necrotic eschar at the point of entry
atypical pneumonia
sepsis
massive edema
shock
DIC
death

11

What is the reservoir for Hantavirus?

Rodents

12

What is the transmission for Hantavirus?

Aerosol - Inhalation of viruses in urine or feces
Bite

13

What are the clinical signs of Hantavirus in humans?

Fever
Chills
Mylagia
headache

14

What is the clinical signs of "Old World" Hantavirus?

Hemorrhagic Fever
Renal damage
Cardiovascular shock

15

What are the risk factors for humans for hantavirus?

Rodent contact
working with rodents or rodent habitats

16

What fungal infections are aerosolized from spores in the environment?

Blastomyces
Coccidiodes

17

What fungal infections are excreted by birds and bats into the soil?

Histoplasma
Cryptococcus

18

What are the clinical signs of fungal pulmonary infection?

High fever
night sweats
Enlarged pulmonary lymph nodes
Radiographic masses

19

What is the reservoir for Coccidiodes immitis?

Soil

20

What influenzas have documented human transmission?

Swine
Bird

21

Why are swine susceptible to both human and avian strains?

They are viral mixing vessels

22

How is influenza transmitted between people?

Direct
Indirect through contaminated surfaces

23

How is influenza transmitted between swine?

Direct
Aerosolization

24

How is influenza transmitted between wild birds?

Fecal-oral
Saliva
Nasal secretions

25

How is influenza transmitted between poultry?

Direct
contaminated surfaces
manure handling
dust

26

What is the treatment for influenza in humans?

Antivirals

27

What is the treatments for influenza in animals?

Supportive care

28

Control and Prevention of Influenza

REPORT
Wear PPE
Test and Isolate sick animals
Educate owners
Vaccines for animals and humans

29

Who is at risk for contracting Q-fever?

Slaughterhouse personnel
Vets
people working with pregnant animals

30

How is Q-fever transmitted?

Windborne in dust
Exposure to parturient cats
Shed in birth products
Lower shedding in feces and urine
Tick borne

31

How do you control Q-fever?

Immediately seek medical attention if suspected
Segregate parturient animals and burn placentas and other birth products
Proper bio safety procedures
Vaccinate livestock

32

What are the two forms of Chylamydia?

Elementary body
reticulate body

33

Who is at risk for contracting chlamydia?

Bird owners
pet store workers
vets
poultry and poultry processing

34

How is chlamydia transmitted in birds?

Fecal-oral

35

How is Chlamydia transmitted in humans?

Direct handling of infected birds

36

How do you control the spread of Chlamydia?

Counsel pet bird owners on signs of parrot fever
Consider disease in any sick bird with lethargy and nonspecific signs especially if stressed
Biosafety measures in handling infected birds