Milk Hygiene Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Epidemiology 2016 > Milk Hygiene > Flashcards

Flashcards in Milk Hygiene Deck (19):
1

Who regulates Grade A Milk?

Defined and Regulated by Pasteurized Milk Ordinance

2

Grade A Milk

milk for liquid consumption and any milk in interstate commerce

3

What are some contaminants of milk?

Antibiotics & other drugs
pesticides
colostrum
off-flavors
other adulterants

4

What are the causes of high bacterial counts

Milking dirty cows
Cleaning water temperature and volume
Cracked rubber parts
Dirty gaskets
Biofilm in the bulk tank
Inadequate cleaning of bulk tank
Mastitis bacteria

5

Clarifier

Remove sediment

6

Separator

separate milk with different amounts of fat

7

What is Pasteurization based on?

the thermal death of Coxiella burnetii

8

Batch pasteuriztion

Entire vat is heated and held at temperature for the appropriate length of time

9

Continuous Pasteurization

Milk flows through a heated tube with a carefully monitored transit time and temperature
Less of a "cooked" flavor than with batch methods

10

What are the sources of Microbes in Milk?

Udder Infections
Exterior of animal
Air
Milking equipment
Personnel
Water

11

Mastitis

Inflammatory reaction of the udder

12

What are some causes of Mastitis?

S aureus
streptococcus spp.
E.coli
Klebsiella
Mycoplasma spp.
Serratia

13

Somatic Cells

Leukocytes

14

What is the legal maximum somatic cell count in a bulk milk tank?

750,000

15

What are the beliefs that have led to sales of unpasteurized milk?

Nutrients are lost by pasteurization
pasteurization causes milk allergies

16

Standards for Grad A Pasteurized Milk:

Cooled to 45F and maintained
less than 20,000 bacteria per ml
less than 10 coliform bacteria per ml
Phosphatase test must be negative

17

Healthy Cow Somatic Cell Count

Less than 100,000 per ml

18

Standard for Grade A pasteurized milk for cheese or cottage cheese:

no bacterial limit
Coliform bacteria less than 10 per ml

19

Other contaminants of milk:

Antibiotics and other drugs
Pesticides
Colostrum
Off-flavors
Other adulterants