Measures of Disease Occurrence Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Epidemiology 2016 > Measures of Disease Occurrence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Measures of Disease Occurrence Deck (26):
1

Study Population

Subjects in the study
Usually a 'sample' from a source population

2

Source Population

Population from which the subjects were drawn

3

Target Population

Population to which we may want to generalize our results

4

What are the most common types of measures in epidemiology?

Counts
Proportions
Ratios
Rates

5

Proportion

The count of animals with the disease as a fraction of the total animals that could be diseased

6

Prevalence

the most commonly-used proportion in epidemiology

7

Ratios

A measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population over a specified period of time
A fraction in which the numerator is not part of the denominator

8

What are the commonly used rates in epidemiology?

Cumulative incidence
Incidence rate/density

9

What are the types of Prevalence?

Point prevalence
Period prevalence

10

What are the types of incidence?

Cumulative incidence
Incidence rate

11

Attack rate

a specific type of cumulative incidence

12

Prevalence

the proportion of the study population that is diseased at any one time

13

Point Prevalence definition

The proportion of the study population that is diseased at a single point in time

14

What is the most common measure of prevalence?

Point Prevalence

15

Period Prevalence definition

the proportion of the study population that is disease during specified period of time

16

Incidence

the number of new cases of disease that occur in the study population over time
The rate of occurrence of new diseases in that study population

17

Cumulative incidence

the proportion of disease free (susceptible) individuals in the study population who became diseased during a specified period of time

18

Assumption with cumulative incidence

all individuals in that study population are at risk of getting the disease (or other outcome) of interest
Every individual in the study population is assessed at the start study, to identify and remove existing cases
The entire population at risk must be followed from the start of the study until the end

19

Attack Rate

a specific type of cumulative incidence
cumulative incidence during an outbreak

20

Incidence rate

instantaneous rate of occurrence of new cases of disease among non-diseased animals in the population
Expressed as the number of cases per animal-time at risk

21

Disease risk

the probability of becoming diseased

22

at risk

an individual is not diseased and is capable of becoming diseased

23

Risk Factors

factors that increase the probability of becoming diseased

24

Exposure to a risk factor

an individual has come in contact with a risk factor or has the risk factor (while not diseased)

25

Mortality rate

the incidence of death in a given time period

26

Case Fatality rate

The number of cases of a specific disease that are fatal, within a specified time following disease onset or diagnosis