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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (50):
1

What is the function of a ribosome?

Makes protein

2

What is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions fairly constant?

Homeostasis

3

Give an example of a prokaryote.

Bacteria

4

What does the work of scientists usually begin with?

Careful observations

5

Which macromolecule is the main source of energy for living things?

Carbohydrate

6

List the levels of biological organization from cell to biosphere.

Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere

7

What is the term for energy needed to get a reaction started?

Activation energy

8

What is the term for information gathered from an experiment?

Data

9

What is the function of the cytoskeleton?

Helps a cell keep its shape

10

Name 3 factors that can affect the rate of photosynthesis.

Water, light intensity and temperature

11

Where is chlorophyll found in the chloroplast?

Thylakoid membranes

12

Describe the structures that make up the cell membrane.

Phospholipid bilayer with protein channels and pumps

13

What is the term for an organism that can make its own food?

Autotroph

14

What gas is given off by plants during photosynthesis?

Oxygen

15

The purpose of cellular respiration is to release _____.

Energy

16

Which types of cells have cell walls?

Plants, fungi, bacteria

17

What type of fermentation takes place in muscle cells?

Lactic acid

18

How is cell division different in plant and animal cells?

Plants cells form a cell plate

19

What is meant by P, F1 and F2 in genetics?

Parents, children, grandchildren

20

What are the results when you cross a purebred tall plant with a short plant?

All heterozygous tall (Tt) plants

21

List the phases of the cell cycle and explain what happens in each.

Interphase--G1 (growth,) S (DNA replication,) G2 (preparation for mitosis) and M phase (cell division)

22

In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?

Chloroplast

23

List the phases of mitosis in order.

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

24

What results when cells lose the ability to control their growth rate?

Cancer

25

Which process produces gametes?

Meiosis

26

Which molecule contains uracil and ribose?

RNA

27

Where does transcription take place in a cell?

Nucleus

28

What type of mutation occurs when a nucleotide is replaced with a different nucleotide?

Point mutation

29

How many cells are produced by mitosis? meiosis?

Mitosis--2, Meiosis--4

30

What is replication?

Process in which DNA is copied

31

What is produced during transcription? translation?

Transcription--RNA molecules, translation--proteins

32

What is polygenic inheritance?

Trait is controlled by more than one gene, Ex. human skin color

33

What is the term for making changes to the DNA code of a living organism?

Genetic engineering

34

What abnormalities can be observed in a karyotype?

Extra or missing chromosomes

35

What is nondisjunction?

Failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis

36

Genes located on the sex chromosomes are called _____.

Sex-linked genes

37

Sickle cell disease is caused by a change in _____ DNA base.

One

38

How is Huntington's disease inherited?

Dominant gene

39

What is the term for an educated guess or suggestion for why something happens?

Hypothesis Ex. If I study for the midterm, my grade will be higher.

40

In order for a hypothesis to be useful, it must be _____.

Testable

41

Which organelles are found in plant cells by not in animal cells?

Cell wall and chloroplast

42

Which organelle converts food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use?

Mitochondrion

43

What are the functions of the cell membrane?

Cell boundary, regulates what enters and leaves the cell

44

Why do most plants appear green?

Chlorophyll reflects green light.

45

List the 3 steps of cellular respiration in order.

Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain

46

Which side of a chemical equation has the reactants? the products?

Reactants--left, products--right

47

How is energy released from an ATP molecule?

A phosphate group is removed

48

What problems does a cell encounter as it grows larger?

Moving materials in and out of the cell, DNA overload

49

How does the chromosome number of a parent cell compare to daughter cells produced by mitosis?

Identical

50

The type of amino acid added to the protein depends on the _____ of the mRNA and the _____ of the tRNA.

Codon, anticodon