Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (50):
What is the function of a ribosome?
What is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions fairly constant?
Give an example of a prokaryote.
What does the work of scientists usually begin with?
Which macromolecule is the main source of energy for living things?
List the levels of biological organization from cell to biosphere.
Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
What is the term for energy needed to get a reaction started?
What is the term for information gathered from an experiment?
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
Helps a cell keep its shape
Name 3 factors that can affect the rate of photosynthesis.
Water, light intensity and temperature
Where is chlorophyll found in the chloroplast?
Describe the structures that make up the cell membrane.
Phospholipid bilayer with protein channels and pumps
What is the term for an organism that can make its own food?
What gas is given off by plants during photosynthesis?
The purpose of cellular respiration is to release _____.
Which types of cells have cell walls?
Plants, fungi, bacteria
What type of fermentation takes place in muscle cells?
How is cell division different in plant and animal cells?
Plants cells form a cell plate
What is meant by P, F1 and F2 in genetics?
Parents, children, grandchildren
What are the results when you cross a purebred tall plant with a short plant?
All heterozygous tall (Tt) plants
List the phases of the cell cycle and explain what happens in each.
Interphase--G1 (growth,) S (DNA replication,) G2 (preparation for mitosis) and M phase (cell division)
In which organelle does photosynthesis take place?
List the phases of mitosis in order.
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What results when cells lose the ability to control their growth rate?
Which process produces gametes?
Which molecule contains uracil and ribose?
Where does transcription take place in a cell?
What type of mutation occurs when a nucleotide is replaced with a different nucleotide?
How many cells are produced by mitosis? meiosis?
What is replication?
Process in which DNA is copied
What is produced during transcription? translation?
Transcription--RNA molecules, translation--proteins
What is polygenic inheritance?
Trait is controlled by more than one gene, Ex. human skin color
What is the term for making changes to the DNA code of a living organism?
What abnormalities can be observed in a karyotype?
Extra or missing chromosomes
What is nondisjunction?
Failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
Genes located on the sex chromosomes are called _____.
Sickle cell disease is caused by a change in _____ DNA base.
How is Huntington's disease inherited?
What is the term for an educated guess or suggestion for why something happens?
Hypothesis Ex. If I study for the midterm, my grade will be higher.
In order for a hypothesis to be useful, it must be _____.
Which organelles are found in plant cells by not in animal cells?
Cell wall and chloroplast
Which organelle converts food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use?
What are the functions of the cell membrane?
Cell boundary, regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Why do most plants appear green?
Chlorophyll reflects green light.
List the 3 steps of cellular respiration in order.
Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain
Which side of a chemical equation has the reactants? the products?
How is energy released from an ATP molecule?
A phosphate group is removed
What problems does a cell encounter as it grows larger?
Moving materials in and out of the cell, DNA overload
How does the chromosome number of a parent cell compare to daughter cells produced by mitosis?