Unit 3 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Review Deck (50):
1

Number and type of cells formed by meiosis

4 different

2

Number and type of cells formed by mitosis

2 identical

3

Process where homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids

crossing over

4

Ultimate source of genetic variability

mutation

5

Component of DNA that provides the instructions for the production of a protein

sequence of nitrogen bases

6

Sugar in DNA

deoxyribose

7

Sugar in RNA

ribose

8

Shape of DNA

double helix

9

Bases in DNA

adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

10

Bases in RNA

adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine

11

Location of DNA in eukaryotic cell

nucleus

12

Why RNA is needed

DNA cannot leave the nucleus

13

Produced during transcription

RNA molecules

14

Produced during translation

protein

15

Genes contain instructions for assembling these

proteins

16

Body cell has 34 chromosomes so gamete has

17

17

Haploid number is 10 so diploid is

20

18

Egg has 15 chromosomes so sperm has

15

19

Mutation where a single base is substituted

point mutation
One amino acid may be changed

20

Mutation where a base is added or deleted

frameshift mutation
All amino acids after mutation are changed

21

Number of bases changed in Sickle Cell Anemia

1

22

Sex chromosomes of a normal male

XY

23

Sex chromosomes of a normal female

XX

24

Everyone's DNA is unique except for

identical twins

25

Number of chromosomes in a human body cell

46

26

Number of chromosomes in a human gamete

23

27

Failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis

nondisjunction
Results in extra or missing chromosomes

28

Sex of a person who is XXY

male

29

Type of inheritance for colorblindness

sex-linked

30

Type of inheritance for sickle cell anemia

codominant

31

Type of inheritance for PKU

recessive

32

Type of inheritance for Tay-Sachs

recessive

33

Type of inheritance for hemophilia

sex-linked

34

Type of inheritance for Huntington's Disease

dominant

35

Two identical alleles for a trait Ex. TT

homozygous

36

Two different alleles for a trait Ex. Tt

heterozygous

37

Another term for heterozygous

hybrid

38

Another term for homozygous

purebred or true-breeding

39

Process likely responsible for bringing together recessive alleles for a genetic defect

inbreeding

40

Possible gametes for a parent who is BBAa

BA and Ba

41

Situation in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene

incomplete dominance

42

Both alleles are expressed equally

codominance

43

Trait is controlled by more than one gene

polygenic

44

A gene with more than two possible alleles

multiple alleles

45

Red and furry are dominant. What is the genotype for white and heterozygous furry?

rrFf

46

Use for gel electrophoresis

separating DNA fragments

47

Benefit of being heterozygous for sickle cell

resistance to malaria

48

In order for mutations to be passed down, they must affect the DNA of the parent's

gametes

49

A person with the sex chromosomes XO is

female (with Turner's syndrome)

50

A person with the sex chromosomes XXY is

male (with Klinefelter's syndrome)