Unit 2 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 Review Deck (50):
1

Three parts of a DNA nucleotide

nitrogen base, deoxyribose, phosphate group

2

This happens to a cell's DNA as the cell grows

overload

3

Two gene mutations that can cause a frameshift

deletion and insertion

4

The base pair rule in DNA

A matches with T, G matches with C

5

Phases of mitosis in order

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

6

Three types of RNA

ribosomal, transfer, messenger

7

Phase when DNA replication occurs

S phase

8

Three parts of interphase and what happens in each

G1--cell growth, S--DNA synthesis, G2--preparation for mitosis

9

Three differences between DNA and RNA

DNA cannot leave nucleus, RNA can
DNA is double stranded, RNA is single stranded
DNA contains thymine, RNA contains uracil
DNA contains deoxyribose, RNA contains ribose

10

What happens in prophase

Nucleus disappears and chromatin coils into chromosomes

11

How the base pair rule changes when synthesizing RNA

thymine is replaced by uracil

12

The role of spindle in mitosis

helps separate the chromosomes

13

Cells stop dividing when they touch other cells

contact inhibition

14

Part of DNA that holds the genetic code

sequence of nitrogen bases

15

What happens in metaphase

chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell

16

Three phases of interphase in order

G1, S, G2

17

Process where DNA copies itself

replication

18

Division of the cytoplasm

cytokinesis

19

Division of the nucleus

mitosis

20

What happens in anaphase

centromeres split, chromosomes move to opposite poles

21

Two main stages of cell division

cytokinesis and mitosis

22

DNA tells the cell how to make this

protein

23

What happens in telophase

chromosomes reach poles, nuclei reappear

24

Phase when chromosomes are visible

M phase

25

Ultimate source of genetic variability

mutation

26

Effects of frameshift on protein

changes sequence of amino acids

27

Mutation when one nitrogen base is removed

deletion

28

Mutation when one nitrogen base is added

insertion

29

Mutation when one nitrogen base is replaced

substitution

30

Carries DNA code to the ribosome

messenger RNA

31

Makes up part of the ribosome

ribosomal RNA

32

Carries amino acids to the ribosome

transfer RNA

33

DNA part that separates in replication

nitrogen base pairs

34

Process where DNA is copied into mRNA

transcription

35

Process where cell uses mRNA to make protein

translation

36

Number of bases in a codon

three

37

Number of bases in an anticodon

three

38

Produced by transciption

(messenger) RNA molecules

39

Produced by translation

protein

40

Produced by replication

DNA molecules

41

Shape of tRNA

upside down "t" or clover

42

Replicate this DNA strand: ATGTAGC

TACATCG

43

Transcribe this DNA strand: GCATTAC

CGUAAUG

44

During interphase, DNA is called

chromatin

45

Sister chromatids are held together by this

centromere

46

Pairs with adenine in DNA

thymine

47

Pairs with adenine in RNA

uracil

48

Shape of DNA

double helix

49

Transcribe this DNA strand: TACGATA

AUGCUAU

50

UCGCAGA came from this DNA strand

AGCGTCT