Unit 5A Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5A Review Deck (50):
1

growth in a new area; ex. on a newly formed volcanic island

primary succession

2

branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and the environment

ecology

3

all species in a given area; ex. all organisms in Flower Mound

community

4

process in which bacteria convert nitrogen into a form plants can use

nitrogen fixation

5

consists of all ecosystems of one type; ex. tropical rainforest

biome

6

term that means nonliving

abiotic

7

organism that eats consumers

carnivore

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8

limiting factor whose effect is the same regardless of population size

density independent

9

examples of density independent limiting factors

earthquake, drought, severe frost, fire

10

symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits, but the other is harmed

parasitism

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11

the original source of energy in most ecosystems

sunlight

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12

rapid increase in population numbers due to unlimited resources

exponential growth

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13

symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit

mutualism

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14

term that means living

biotic

15

combined portions of Earth in which all living things exist

biosphere

16

organism that eats producers

herbivore

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17

symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits, and the other is unaffected

commensalism

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18

limiting factor whose effect increases with population size

density dependent

19

examples of density dependent limiting factors

disease, parasitism, emigration, competition

20

"job" of an organism in the environment

niche

21

organism that eats both producers and consumers

omnivore

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22

each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a food web

trophic level

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23

growth in an area has been disrupted and begins again; ex. on an abandoned field

secondary succession

24

What happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level?

released as heat

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25

How do prey population numbers affect predator population numbers?

They are dependent on one another. If prey numbers go up, predator numbers go up. If predator numbers go up, prey numbers go down.

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26

leveling off of population numbers due to limited resources

logistic growth

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27

an organism that can make its own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

autotroph

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28

the day to day conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area

weather

29

movement of organisms into a population/area

immigration

30

one species in a given area; ex. all squirrels in Flower Mound

population

31

an organism that obtains nutrients by breaking down dead organisms

decomposer; ex. fungi and bacteria

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32

average year after year conditions of temperature and precipitation in an area

climate

33

What percentage of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next?

10%

34

an organism that cannot make it own food and must eat other organisms for food

heterotroph

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35

What do the arrows in a food web or food chain indicate?

the direction of energy flow; prey-->predator

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36

Where is most energy and matter located in an ecological pyramid?

at the bottom

37

a pyramid that shows the amount of living tissue at each level

biomass pyramid

38

relationship in which one species captures and feeds on the other

predation

39

movement of organisms out of a population/area

emigration

40

pyramid that shows the number of organisms at each level

pyramid of numbers

41

What happens to a population that exceeds its carrying capacity?

population numbers drop due to lack of resources

42

relationship in which two species fight over the same resource

competition

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43

pyramid that shows the amount of energy at each level

energy pyramid

44

Compare the movement of energy to the movement of nutrients in an ecosystem.

Energy moves in only one direction, but nutrients recycle.

45

Name 2 factors that would increase population numbers.

increasing birth rate and decreasing death rate

46

Name 2 factors that would decrease population numbers.

decreasing birth rate and increasing death rate

47

How does the amount of DDT change as it moves along a food chain?

increases at each level (biomagnification)

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48

How does the amount of energy change as it moves along a food chain?

decreases at each level (only 10% is passed from level to level)

49

Identify the trophic levels of each organism in this food chain.

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Leaf--producer, Caterpillar--primary consumer(herbivore,) Chameleon--secondary consumer, Snake--tertiary consumer, Mongoose--quaternary consumer

50

The grass has 100% energy.  Following the 10% rule, what energy percentages will the remaining organisms have?

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Grass--100%, Grasshopper--10%, Mouse--1%, Owl--0.1%

Each organism gets 10% of the energy from the previous organism.