Flashcards in Minerals Deck (51):
what does trace minerals depend on?
soil and water composition and food processing
what kind of mineral deficiencies are easy to miss?
most common result of children with mineral deficiency?
Failure to grow/thrive
hypercalcaemia leads to impaired:
kidney function (stones)
other mineral absorption
If blood calcium is too high, what releases?
Calcitonin from thyroid
If blood calcium is too low what releases?
Parathyroid and vitamin D
What is malignant hyperthermia? how triggered?
1. muscle releases excess Ca2+, uncontrolled ATPase
2. happen in general anaesthesis: Rx: dantrolene, ice
Calcium upper limit?
majority of phosphorus consumed as?
where is body's phosphorus store?
hydroxyapatite in bones
phosphorus in body?
DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids
muscle, neuronal dysfunction, RBC fragility
calcification of organs/soft tissues
Potassium best found in what foods?
stop the heart
Sulfur requirements met how?
by consuming aminoacids with sulfur sidechains: cysteine and methionine
Where on body high in sulfur?
keratin in skin, hair, nails
excess sodium leads to?
Magnesium supports what 2 things mainly?
Magnesium is a co-factor in?
What is epsom salt? use?
MgS04, use as laxatives
Does magnesium help with muscle cramps?
Iron RDI women, vs. men
Deficiency in iron results in?
Anaemia, body temp dysreg, pica
skin pigmentation, cirrhosis, diabetes
Fe3+ or 2+ absorbed and used?
Irons absorption assisted by?
daily turn over in iron?
Hereditary haemochromatosis is what?
defect in iron carrying/storing protein leads to excess iron
Zinc: men or women need more?
men, 14mg vs/ 8mg women
zinc important in what enzyme?
zinc deficiency leads to?
highest source of zinc?
copper is important because?
final electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation
Two copper diseases are:
What is Menke's disease?
X-linked: +++ copper storage, no release: sparse, wirey hair, defective ATP7a
copper toxicity, overactive ATP7A
What is kayser-Fleischer ring?
copper deposition in ring around cornea: diagnostic
Manganese is key in what formation?
glycogenin for glycogen formation and initiates photosynthesis
What is ATP7A do?
Selenium needed to make?
T3 and T4
Selenium comes from?
insulin and glucose tolerance
Vitamin B12 contains?
maintain bone and teeth health