Minerals Flashcards Preview

Jason's Metabolism Block > Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals Deck (51):
1

what does trace minerals depend on?

soil and water composition and food processing

2

what kind of mineral deficiencies are easy to miss?

mild deficiencies

3

most common result of children with mineral deficiency?

Failure to grow/thrive

4

hypercalcaemia leads to impaired:

kidney function (stones)
other mineral absorption
bone: osteoporosis

5

If blood calcium is too high, what releases?

Calcitonin from thyroid

6

If blood calcium is too low what releases?

Parathyroid and vitamin D

7

What is malignant hyperthermia? how triggered?

1. muscle releases excess Ca2+, uncontrolled ATPase
2. happen in general anaesthesis: Rx: dantrolene, ice

8

Calcium upper limit?

2.5g/day

9

majority of phosphorus consumed as?

fertilizers/bone ash

10

where is body's phosphorus store?

hydroxyapatite in bones

11

phosphorus in body?

DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids

12

hypophosphataemia symptoms?

muscle, neuronal dysfunction, RBC fragility

13

hyperphosphataemia symptoms?

diarrhoea
calcification of organs/soft tissues

14

Potassium best found in what foods?

fruits/veg: bananas

15

potassium toxicity:

stop the heart

16

potassium deficiency:

arrythmias, weakness

17

Sulfur requirements met how?

by consuming aminoacids with sulfur sidechains: cysteine and methionine

18

Where on body high in sulfur?

keratin in skin, hair, nails

19

Sodium RDI?

2300mg/day

20

excess sodium leads to?

hypertension, oedema

21

Chloride toxicity?

vomitting

22

Magnesium supports what 2 things mainly?

bone mineralisation
muscle contractions

23

Magnesium is a co-factor in?

ATP

24

What is epsom salt? use?

MgS04, use as laxatives

25

Does magnesium help with muscle cramps?

probably

26

Iron RDI women, vs. men

women: 18mg/day
men: 8mg/day

27

Deficiency in iron results in?

Anaemia, body temp dysreg, pica

28

haemochromatosis signs?

skin pigmentation, cirrhosis, diabetes

29

Fe3+ or 2+ absorbed and used?

Fe2+

30

Irons absorption assisted by?

vitamin C

31

daily turn over in iron?

2-4mg

32

Hereditary haemochromatosis is what?

defect in iron carrying/storing protein leads to excess iron

33

Zinc: men or women need more?

men, 14mg vs/ 8mg women

34

zinc important in what enzyme?

insulin
sperm production

35

zinc deficiency leads to?

growth retardation

36

highest source of zinc?

oysters

37

copper is important because?

final electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation

38

Two copper diseases are:

Menke's disease
Wilson's disease

39

What is Menke's disease?

X-linked: +++ copper storage, no release: sparse, wirey hair, defective ATP7a

40

Wilson's disease?

copper toxicity, overactive ATP7A

41

What is kayser-Fleischer ring?

copper deposition in ring around cornea: diagnostic

42

Manganese is key in what formation?

glycogenin for glycogen formation and initiates photosynthesis

43

What is ATP7A do?

copper transporter

44

Selenium needed to make?

T3 and T4

45

Selenium toxicity?

garlic breath
brittle hair/nails,

46

Selenium comes from?

soil

47

Chromium enhances?

insulin and glucose tolerance

48

Molybdenum for?

enzyme co-factor

49

Vitamin B12 contains?

cobalt

50

fluoride function?

maintain bone and teeth health

51

fluorosis symptoms?

pitting/discoloration of teeth