Postprandial Glucose Flashcards Preview

Jason's Metabolism Block > Postprandial Glucose > Flashcards

Flashcards in Postprandial Glucose Deck (45):
1

Islets Gamma Cells make?

pancreatic polypeptide

2

Glucagon made where?

Alpha cells

3

islets Delta cells make?

somatostatin

4

Amylin comes from?

Islets Beta Cells

5

Where are Beta cells in relation to alpha or delta cells

Beta in the middle
Alpha all around

6

Islets Alpha cells make?

glucagon

7

somatostatin made where?

delta-cells

8

What makes pancreatic polypeptide in the islets?

gamma cells

9

Islets Beta Cells make?

Insulin
Amylin

10

what converts preprohormone to prohormone?

prohormone convertase 2

11

what converts prohormone to insulin?

prohormone convertase 1

12

C-peptide conserved or mutated across species?

mutated

13

C-peptide is?

part that is cleaved from proinsulin to insulin

14

insulin in cell packaged in? what's in it?

secretory granules with endopeptidase within

15

mature insulin in secretary granules form?

crystal core

16

2 phases of insulin secretion?

1. sharp rise (2-5 minutes) (cell near surface)
2. prolonged secretion phase

17

Cellular events in insulin secretion

AA or GLUT2 > glucose-->G6P > TCA > ATP > close K+ > Ca2+ influx > insulin secreted

18

What can stimulate insulin besides glucose?

Amino Acids
Fatty Acids
glucose

19

more or less insulin secreted when glucose taken orally? implications?

More
means that there are hormones released in gut

20

what effect demonstrates increased oral vs. IV glucose for insulin?

Incretin Effect

21

What are incretins?

gut-derived hormones in response to nutrients

22

2 main incretins:

1. glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
2. Glucose-induced insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)

23

Where are the follow secreted? 1. glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
2. Glucose-induced insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)

1. lower small bowel
2. upper small bowel

24

Which incretin more potent? GLP-1? of GIP?

GLP-1

25

GLP-1 secreted from which cells?

Lower small bowel: L-cells

26

When is GLP-1 secreted?

when glucose levels high

27

GLP-1 does what to glucagon?

inhibits

28

GLP-1 does what to Beta-cells?

stims insulin
proliferation
differentiation
Maturation

29

why GLP-1 as drug won't work?

half-life of 2 minutes

30

What are exenatide and liraglutide?

GLP-1R agonists (incretin mimetics)

31

DPP-4 inhibitors are for?

inhibiting break down of incretins to enhance incretin levels

32

where did scientists get idea for long acting GLP-1

Gila monster, only eats twice a year

33

exenatide gain or lose weight?

lose weight

34

how often give exenatide?

once a week

35

What worsens DMII process?

progressive Beta cell failure

36

GLP-1 treatment for humans in order to do what?

grow more Beta cells

37

GLP-1 cancer risk?

None so far tested

38

Glucose-induced insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secreted from which cells?

Duodenum: K cells

39

Glucose-induced insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) activates?

lipoprotein lipase to enhance fat clearance from blood

40

Amylin role?

secreted with insulin to inhibit glucagon secretion, decrease appetite

41

Glucagon stims?

liver to release glucose

42

pancreatic polypeptide released when?

after meal

43

pancreatic polypeptide inhibits?

food intake
pancreatic enzyme secretion
blocks gall bladder contraction

44

somatostatin inhibits 3 big things

insulin
glucagon
pancreatic exocrine

45

purpose of smoatostatin?

prevent exaggerated responses to a meal