Flashcards in Mitochondria Deck (35):
how many mitochondria in healthy cells?
When did mitochondria endosymbiose with eukaryotes?
~2billion years ago
Get Acetyl CoA from 3 big sources
fatty acid oxidation
ketone body synthesis
mitochondria completely oxidise fuel till what end molecule?
how to you get reactive oxygen species in mitochondria?
leakage in electron transport chain
theory of mitochondria and aging?
accumulated damage over time of cells by mitochondria
mitochondrial disease attributed to? histologically see?
mitochondrial DNA mutations
ragged red fibres
most common kinds of mitochondrial diseases involve?
hallmark of mitochondrial disorder?
ragged red fibres
What 2 things do you need to break down fats?
How many ATP for one molecule of palmeric acid?
Mitochondria does what to nitrogen compounds?
protects you from ammonia by turning it into urea to excrete in kidneys
Symptoms of urea cycle failure?
Permeability of Mitochondrial membranes?
What is TCA?
Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle
What energy molecules do you get from krebs cycle?
What does Argininemia, argininosuccinic acidemia and carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 deficiency affect?
Mitochondrial urea cycle failure
Citric acid cycle metabolites only make energy substrates?
Nope. Substrates make:
What is the electron pathyway of NADH in mitochondria inner membrane?
NADH> Q > cyt b > cyt C1 > Cyt C > Cty (a+a3) > 02
What does CN of CO do to kill you?
Blocks terminal respiration complex in Mitochondrial inner membrane, no transfer of e- to oxygen
How many complexes in oxidative phosphorylation?
What does Ubiquinone=(Q)=coenzyme Q = CoQ10 do?
shuttles electrons between complexes
Q10 supplement given when? for what?
when using statins
to alleviate myotoxicity (heart probs)
why is brown adipose brown?
because of abundance of mitochondria = cytochromes = coloured
ATP synthase in vitro does what? in vivo?
in vitro: breaks ATP
in vivo: makes ATP with intact inner membrane
what metal in mitochondria protein complex?
Which respiratory complex encoded by nDNA?
How do you make ATP in the mitochondrial ATP synthase
mechanical energy of gamma subunit winds up a/B subunits that push ADP + Pi together
ATP synthase is susceptible to what antibiotic?
Chemiosmosis explains what?
why chloroplasts, bacteria, mitochondria all proton pump across their membranes
electrons leak in the inner Mitochondrial membrane how?
via Q complex, made into super oxides
What does a uncoupling protein in the Mitochondrial inner membrane do?
H+ leak through membrane without ATP production. only heat generated
What is the uncoupling protein in brown fat called?
what is the function of malate-aspartate shuttle?
transfers reducing power of NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for oxidative phsphorylation