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Jason's Metabolism Block > Mitochondria > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mitochondria Deck (35):
1

how many mitochondria in healthy cells?

200-10 000

2

When did mitochondria endosymbiose with eukaryotes?

~2billion years ago

3

Get Acetyl CoA from 3 big sources

pyruvate
fatty acid oxidation
ketone body synthesis

4

mitochondria completely oxidise fuel till what end molecule?

CO2

5

how to you get reactive oxygen species in mitochondria?

leakage in electron transport chain

6

theory of mitochondria and aging?

accumulated damage over time of cells by mitochondria

7

mitochondrial disease attributed to? histologically see?

mitochondrial DNA mutations
ragged red fibres

8

most common kinds of mitochondrial diseases involve?

myopathies

9

hallmark of mitochondrial disorder?

ragged red fibres

10

What 2 things do you need to break down fats?

1. Mitochondria
2. Oxygen

11

How many ATP for one molecule of palmeric acid?

108 ATP

12

Mitochondria does what to nitrogen compounds?

protects you from ammonia by turning it into urea to excrete in kidneys

13

Symptoms of urea cycle failure?

lethargy
convulsions
early death

14

Permeability of Mitochondrial membranes?

Outer: permeable
Inner: impermeable

15

What is TCA?

Krebs cycle, citric acid cycle

16

What energy molecules do you get from krebs cycle?

3 NADH
1 FADH2
1 GTP/ATP

17

What does Argininemia, argininosuccinic acidemia and carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 deficiency affect?

Mitochondrial urea cycle failure

18

Citric acid cycle metabolites only make energy substrates?

Nope. Substrates make:
1. porphyrins
2. Purines
3. pyrimadines

19

What is the electron pathyway of NADH in mitochondria inner membrane?

NADH> Q > cyt b > cyt C1 > Cyt C > Cty (a+a3) > 02

20

What does CN of CO do to kill you?

Blocks terminal respiration complex in Mitochondrial inner membrane, no transfer of e- to oxygen

21

How many complexes in oxidative phosphorylation?

4 complexes

22

What does Ubiquinone=(Q)=coenzyme Q = CoQ10 do?

shuttles electrons between complexes

23

Q10 supplement given when? for what?

when using statins
to alleviate myotoxicity (heart probs)

24

why is brown adipose brown?

because of abundance of mitochondria = cytochromes = coloured

25

ATP synthase in vitro does what? in vivo?

in vitro: breaks ATP
in vivo: makes ATP with intact inner membrane

26

what metal in mitochondria protein complex?

copper

27

Which respiratory complex encoded by nDNA?

Complex II

28

How do you make ATP in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

mechanical energy of gamma subunit winds up a/B subunits that push ADP + Pi together

29

ATP synthase is susceptible to what antibiotic?

oligomycin

30

Chemiosmosis explains what?

why chloroplasts, bacteria, mitochondria all proton pump across their membranes

31

electrons leak in the inner Mitochondrial membrane how?

via Q complex, made into super oxides

32

What does a uncoupling protein in the Mitochondrial inner membrane do?

H+ leak through membrane without ATP production. only heat generated

33

What is the uncoupling protein in brown fat called?

thermogenin

34

what is the function of malate-aspartate shuttle?

transfers reducing power of NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for oxidative phsphorylation

35

What does glycerol-3-phosphate do? where is it?

muscle: rapid but expensive energy shuttle