Modalities Ch. 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modalities Ch. 5 Deck (34)
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1

inflammatory response

a local response to an irritant

2

purpose of inflammation

defending the body against outside substances
disposing of dead and dying tissue
preparing the body for tissue repair

3

5 cardinal signs of inflammation

redness - rubor
heat - calor
swelling - edema
pain - dolor
lack of function - funca leasa

4

phases of inflammation

primary injury
ultrastructural changes
chemical mediation
hemodynamic changes
metabolic changes
permeability changes
leukocyte migration
phagocytosis

5

primary injury

any occurrence that causes cell damage

6

ultrastructural changes
-what is it?
-result

changes to the cell that occur as a result of injury
cell eventually dies
changes can be a result of primary or secondary injury

7

chemical mediation

chemical changes are activated by structural changes
chemicals signal to the rest of the body
chemicals are largely responsible for regulation the inflammatory stage

8

names of chemicals or necessary parts

mast cells
chemotactin
histamine, kinins
serotonin
heparin

9

mast cells

where the chemicals come from

10

chemotactin

regulates chemotaxis (attraction and process of chemical transport)

11

histamine, kinins

capillary permeability
vasodilation

12

serotonin

cap. permeability

13

heparin

prevents the blood from clotting

14

hemodynamic

changes in blood flow

15

what hemodynamic changes occur?
-immediately
-following

immediate vasoconstriction
-hypoxia triggers inflammatory response
followed by vasolilation
-release of platelets
increase in capillaries
-leukocytes (white blood cells) arrive

16

leukocyte function

move through capillaries and bind to endothelium (vessel wall)
follows the wall until it finds an opening to get through

17

metabolic changes function

cause further structural damage
hypoxic environment is produced
cells become anaerobic
-less efficient
dysfunction of the sodium pump
cell eventually dies

18

intracellular acidosis

increased acid levels within the cells
lysosomes are overtasked with trying to remove the increased foreign matter
lysosome membranes rupture leading to enzymatic chaos in the cell that increases the tissue damage

19

lysosomes

contain enzymes that digest foreign matter within the cells

20

permeability changes

histamine, kinins and serotonic increase permeability of small blood vessels via chemotaxis
endothelial cells contract
leukocytes move through the endothelium into the injured tissue
permeability is a two-way street - out and in
proteins enter the blood stream
-increased viscosity
-increased hematoma

21

leukocyte migration

the more damaged tissue, the more leukocytes migrate to the area
neutrophils and macrophages

22

neutrophils

small and numerous
first line of defense against infection
die fighting within about seven hours
their battles with other organisms may produce damage to adjacent tissue
their death signals macrophages

23

macrophages

larger leukocytes
reproduce
responsible for cleaning up injury sites
breakdown cellular debris so that it can be picked up by the lymph vessels
produce cytokines

24

phagocytosis

digestion of cellular debris and other foreign material into pieces small enough to be removed from the injury site

25

secondary injury

body's response to tissue damaged by trauma (primary injury) leads to further tissue damage

26

secondary enzymatic injury

cell death
lysosomes release enzymes
enzymes break down the membranes of neighboring live cells
excessive neutrophils lead to excessive tissue breakdown (theory)

27

secondary metabolic injury

hypoxia
cells have insufficient fuel
inadequate waste removal
cell death

28

swelling vs. edema

swelling: increase in tissue volume
edema: accumulation of the fluid portion of blood in the tissue

29

fluid dynamics

the movement of fluid between capillaries and tissue
normally balanced
an imbalance results in edema
-more fluid coming in that going out

30

hydrostatic pressure

capillary filtration pressure: the pressure difference between the inside the outside of a vellel
hydrostatic pressure: the pressure induced by a column of water. PUSHES WATER OUT
capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP): forces fluid out of the capillary
tissue hydrostatic pressure (THP): forces fluid into the capillary