Modalities Ch. 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modalities Ch. 8 Deck (59)
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1

what is pain?

subjective
#1 reason an athlete seeks tx
physiological
modulates response to a pain inducing stimulus

2

types of subjective pain

emotional
psychological
social

3

why is pain physiological

it is associated w/ tissue damage

4

cause and effect types of pain

simple pain
response aimed at protecting and healing
simple pain can become chronic pain (> 3 months)

5

simple pain

acute pain
tissue damage
most sports-related pain
alarm system alerts brain to actual or potential tissue damage

6

how does pain protect and heal the body?

it signals the brain that there is something wrong
plays a role in initiating the healing processes

7

how can simple pain become chronic?
-% of pop. that suffers from chronic pain

untreated
incorrect treatment
20% suffer

8

consequences of chronic pain

depression
decreased activity/disability
atrophy
loss of skill
anxiety
circulatory deficiency

9

how is pain described?

subjectively
-burning, sharp, achey, deep
we try to make it objective
-1-10 pain scales

10

nociception

ability to feel pain

11

nociceptors

specialized nerve endings that respond to stimulus - mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors

12

how are nociceptors classified

by location
-cutaneous
-somatic
-visceral

13

which nociceptors are most common?

mechanical nococeptors (a-delta, force)
polymodal nociceptors (C, heat, mechanical pressure)

14

function of A-delta fibers

pain transmission
crude touch
pressure
temperature

15

function of C-fibers

pain
touch
pressure
temperature

16

nociception vs. pain

nociception
-specific neurophysiological activity
pain
-interpretation of nociception
--subjective and emotional

17

impacts on pain

past pain experience
general life stress
heredity
personality differences

18

common noxious stimuli

mechanical - pressure directly on a nerve (swelling, muscle spasm)
thermal
electrical
chemical - mediators that are present when injured, bradykinin

19

pathway of pain

slam hand in car door
pain signal - chemicals released
chemicals signal receptor to generate a signal
signal travels up the arm on first-order neurons
transmit to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord
signals relayed to a second order neuron
neurons transmit the signal up the spinal cord
received at the thalamus
pain signal transmitted to the cerebral cortex by the third order neuron
pain signal is processed

20

pain terminology

perception threshold
-when it starts to hurt
tolerance threshold
-when someone acts on the pain

21

Specific Theory of Pain

specific nociceptors
specific nerve pathways
specific sensation

22

Pattern Theory of Pain

no existence of specific pain receptors
slow-conducting nerve fibers carry pain
fast-acting nerve fibers carry other sensations
normally, the fast-conduction fibers override the pain
under pathological conditions, the intensity of the stimulation in the slow system becomes much greater and dominates the fast system, resulting in pain

23

Pattern Theory of Pain flaw

too general - doesn't account for receptor specialization

24

Gate Control Theory

specificity + pattern theory
operates at spinal level
proposes a gate mechanism
central control

25

gate mechanism

-pain and other sensory stimuli travel along both large and small nerve fibers
-both stimulate T-cells which pass onto brain
action system includes all responses to the pain
inhibitory mechanism located in the substantia gelatinosa
SG inhibits the T-cell
differential stimulation of SG cells

26

what types of pain do the large and small fibers carry?

large: sharp, stinging
small: dull, aching

27

how do large and small fibers stimulate the SG?

large: facilitates SG
small: inhibits SG

28

Gate Control Theory problems

does not account for phantom limb pain
cannot explain influence of drugs on pain

29

types of pain relieving drugs

morphine
naloxone
enkephalin
endorphin
serotonin

30

morphine function

blocks pain
-fills neurotransmitter sites
-neorutransmitter blocked