Modalities Ch. 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modalities Ch. 12 Deck (50)
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1

what is cryotherapy

use of ice for therapeutic functions

2

cryotherapy beyond immediate care

misconceptions
awesome for immediate care
useful beyond immediate care

3

cryotherapy techniques
-5 major categories

immediate care
post-immediate care
surgical adjunct
cryosurgery
miscellaneous techniques

4

post-immediate care cryotherapy
-primary benefit
-why start therapeutic exercise as early as possible?

primary
-decrease pain
-decrease muscle spasm
why start earlier?
-proper exercise speeds the healing process
-lack of exercise may result in permanent injury

5

post-immediate care precautions

too vigorous exercise may result in permanent disability
optimum healing depends on balance between
-returning to full normal function as quickly as possible
-protect injury from overstress and further injury

6

major cryotherapeutic techniques used during post-immediate care

cryokinetics - exercises
cryostretch
connective tissue stretch
cold compression devices
contrast baths

7

what happens when cold is applied

decreased temperature
tissue destruction
effonts on inflammation
decreased metabolism
decreased and increased pain
decreased muscle spasm

8

temperature change and gradients

immediately after cold application, heat begins moving from the tissue into the cold device
tissue destroyed with severe cooling
--4 to -94 F
tissue is usually cooled to a surface temperature of 33-50F

9

decreased temperature

gradient continues when the cold modality is removed
deep tissue continues to cool after the modality is removed
-as a result of the gradient and heat conduction

10

temperature gradients within the modality

shake cold packs and stir water baths every 5 min. to break up gradient

11

effects on inflammation

many think one benefit of acute injury cryotherapy is to decrease inflammation
probably not true for two reasons
-inflammation is necessary for resolution of the injury
-little research has been done on the acute inflammatory response

12

decreased metablolism

direct relationship between tissue temperature and metabolism

13

effects on pain

cold is the most effective and underused physical modality for pain
clear evidence
by numbing a muscle or joint, active exercise can be used earlier in the rehabilitation process

14

three types of pain

cold pain
residual pain
reinjury pain

15

cold temp

no physiological reason related to increased healing
can be adapted to

16

efforts to minimize cold pain during immersion

development of neoprene toe cap
-eliminates toe pain, which accounts for 50% of pain during immersion
refraining from using cryokinetics
-unfortunate
-pain is both temporary and short lived
using warmer water
-treatment is less effective

17

decreased muscle spasm

muscle spasm is not muscle cramping

18

muscle cramp

seizes
-contracts really strongly

19

muscle spasm

muscle tightness
adhesions in the muscle

20

how muscle spasms are decreased

decreased by cold applications
-specific mechanism unknown
three mechanisms suggested

21

three mechanisms of muscle spasms relief

decreasing nerve conduction
breaking pain-spasm-pain cycle
removing cause of spasm

22

when is using cold to diminish muscle spasm effective?

when combined with stretching
-cryostretch

23

cryostretch technique

cold application until numb
combination of static stretch and isometric contraction
re-numb

24

increased tissue stiffness

cold tissue more stiff so more resistant to movement
some feel this contraindicates exercise after cryotherapy, fearing tissues will tear
-fine motor skills are hindered, but gross motor movement is not

25

decreased arthrogenic muscle inhibition

reverse injury-induced inhibition
may facilitate muscle activity above normal

26

circulatory response

increased and/or decreased blood flow proposed
artitrary explanations for an increase in blood flow
confusion a result of inappropriate application of CIVD concept
ample evidence that cryotherapy decreases blood flow

27

CIVD

Cold-Induced Vasodilation
popular thought
some claim that CIVD increased blood flow more than heat

28

increased rate of healing

owing to exercise, not cold
-exercise increases blood flow far more than either heat or cold
-exercise stimulates healing in other ways as well

29

conclusions

no increase in blood flow
purpose of cold applications post-immediate care is to facilitate rehab
exercise improves healing

30

physiological effects

memorize page 226 - table 12.1