Modalities Ch. 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modalities Ch. 10 Deck (20)
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1

what is heat?

form of energy produced by the movement of molecules
everything with a temperature above absolute zero (-273 C) possesses heat

2

temperature

an object's ability to spontaneously give up energy
molecular motion

3

effects of heat

increased
-relaxation
-circulation
-tissue healing
-metabolism
-inflammation
decreased
-pain
-muscle spasm
-tissue stiffness

4

metabolic effects

chemical activity increases as temperature increases
oxygen uptake
nutrient availability

5

vascular effects

varies b/n tissue types

6

skin blood flow

role in nutrition and maintenance of core body temperature
vasodilation occurs due to
-axon reflex
-release of chemical mediators
-local spinal cord reflexes

7

skeletal muscle flow

blood flow increase due to metabolic regulation
greatest changes with levels of exercise
minimal changes with superficial heating modalities
exercise >superficial heat
SH + ex > SH or EX

8

neuromuscular effects

analgesia
reduced muscle spasm
not entirely understood
theory
-pain threshold
-nerve conduction velocity
-muscle spindle firing rates

9

thermal gate theory

thermoreceptors > nociceptive afferents

10

connective tissue effects

will shorten following injury
effects of heat
-increased elasticity
-decreased viscosity
-decreased joint stiffness
-increased muscle flexibility

11

plastic elongation

result of heat and stretch
must consider
-temperature elevation
-stretch

12

general contraindications

no heat within the first 48-72 hours of an injury
no heat on areas of compromised circulation
no heat on areas of compromised sensation
malignancy
infection

13

superficial vs. deep

superficial
-TTR in surface tissues
-<1 cm depth
-hot packs, whirlpool, paraffin
-conduction and infrared radiation
deep
-TTR in deeper tissue
-3-4 cm
-diathermy and ultrasound
-conversion and radiation

14

4 types of heat transfer

conduction
-direct contact
convection
-air and water
radiation
-light rays, waves

15

conduction modalities

ice pack
hot pack
whirlpool
slush bucket

16

convection modality

whirlpool

17

radiation examples
-modalities

sun
modalities
-diathermy
-laser
-heat lamp

18

conversion

energy other than heat is converted to heat
must occur to heat deep tissues
modalities
-diathermy
-ultrasound

19

heat sinks

areas of the body that can accept and dissipate great amounts of heat
-lungs (respiration)
-skin (perspiration)
carried by circulation
prevents local tissues damage
heat sinks must dissipate heat from a modality as quickly as it is added

20

post-immobilization and heat

increase circulation/healing
decrease stiffness