Module 10 Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 10 Exam 2 Deck (82):
1

What are primary normal changes with aging

they are physiologic changes

2

each age level brings changes in what

-body metabolism
-activity of cells
-endocrine balance
-mental processes

3

are primary physiologic changes unavoidable

yes

4

during aging there is an overall gradual reduction in functional capacities in _________ with a decrease in cell ______ and numbers of active cell

most organs, metabolism

5

What are some changes in the musculoskeletal system

-bone volume decreases gradually
-loss of muscle function
- curvature of cervical vertebrae
-joints may stiffen as a result of loss of elasticity

6

what are some changes we see in the skin

-thin, wrinkled, dry, pigmented spots, loss of tone, atrophy of sweat glands
-reduced tolerance to temperature extremes

7

what are some changes we see in the cardiovascular system?

-decrease in cardiac output, increase in left ventricle size
-blood vessels less elastic
-antherosclerosis

8

do changes in cardiovasculature affect function under normal, unstressful situations

no

9

What are some changes in the respiratory system

-vital capacity diminished
-decreased pulmonary efficiency and gas exchange
-less effective cough reflex, risk for infections

10

what are some changes in the GI system

-production of HCl decreases
-pertistalsis slowed
-decreased adsorptive functions

11

what are changes in the central nervous system

-cognitive function slowed
-short-term memory declines
-complex tasks difficult

12

what are changes in the peripherial nervous system

-decrease in tactile sensitivity
-decreased proprioception

13

what are changes in the visual senses

-presbyopia
-decrease in visual acuity
--decreased dilation and constriction of pupils results in difficulty in changed in light

14

whta are some changes in the hearing senses

-presbycusis
-thicker and dryer cerumen
--decrease in ability to hear high frequency
-tinnitus

15

what are changes in the endocrine system

-decrease in thyroid efficency
-decreased basal metabolic rate
-altered thermoregulatory system

16

what are the changes in the immune system

-body defense systems become less effective
-increase in autoimmune responses (increased risk of perio)
-increased incidence of infections

17

What is their response to disease in relation to course and severity

disease may occur with greater severity and have a longer course, with slower recovery

18

what is their response to disease in relation to pain sensitivity

may be lessened

19

what is their response to disease in relation to temperature response

may be altered so that a patient may be very ill without the expected increase in body temp

20

what is their response to disease in relation to healing

-decreased healing capacity
-more prone to secondary infection

21

Due to age-related primary physiological changes older drinkers compared to young drinkers ________

-require less alcohol for effects to occur
-have more severe concequences

22

What does excessive use of alcohol in an older patient do

-exacerbates medical and emotional problems associated with aging
-predisposes to adverse drug reactions with meds

23

what is alcohol abuse in seniors associated with

major depressive disorder

24

What is osteoporosis

bone disease involving loss of mineral content and bone mass

25

what are the causes of osteoporosis?

endocrine: hormonal disturbances, depletion of estrogen after menopause
calcium deficiency or defective absorbtion of calcium

26

WHat is the first line of defense against osteoporosis

prevention

27

What is involved in the prevention of osteoporosis

-adequate calcium intake in adolescence and adulthood
-load bearing exercise

28

What are risk factors for osteoporosis?

-female:positive fam history
-caucasian or asian
-low calcium and vit D intake
-early menopause or surgical removal of ovaries, eating disorders
-sedentary lifestyle
-alcohol abuse
-high sodium intake
-low BMI

29

What is the relationship of periodontal disease and osteoporosis

-relationship between reduced bone mineral density of osteoporosis and oral bone loss in skeletal and mandibular bone, oral bone loss pertains to perio bone destruction and residual ridge loss in edentulous person

30

Osteoporotic bone is less______ and more readily _________

dense, adsorbed

31

what is the asymptomatic period in osteoporosis

-develops over many years
-long period of bone change with no clinical symptoms

32

what are the clinical symptoms of osteoporosis

backache, fractures (of spine and long bones), evidence of bone changes in the mandible (ridge resorption)

33

What does successful treatment and prevention require

simultaneous intake of calcium and vitamin d

34

what are some medications used in treatment of osteoporosis

-bisphosphonates- inhibit bone resorption
-selective estrogen receptor modulators
-calcitonin
-parathyroid hormone- stimulates bone formation

35

what kind of activity is used in treatment of osteoporosis

exercise is benefical to bone mass, be careful to not fall

36

what are some dental hygiene management considerations for osteoporosis patients

-do not rush
-extra time
-bisphosphonates a contraindication for surgery
-

37

what should we encourage in osteoporosis patients

-smoking cessation
-limit alcohol consumption
-healthy lifestyles

38

What are the 2 types of alzheimers disease

-early onset- in 30s and 40s
-late onset- people over 65

39

What is the etiology of alzheimers

unknown,

40

what is the average duration from the onset of symptoms to death

8 to 10 years

41

what is the first stage of Alz

no impairment, normal function

42

what is the second stage of alz

very mild cognitive decline

43

what is stage 3 of alz

mild cognitive decline

44

what is stage 4 of alz

moderate cognitive decline

45

what is stage 5 of alz

moderately severe cognitive decline (moderate or mid stage alz)

46

what is stage 6 of alz

severe cognitive decline

47

what is stage 7 of alz

very severe cognitive decline (late stage alzheimer)

48

Is there treatment available for alz

no, tx is designed for supporting the family and pt

49

what are the medications used in alz patients with mild to moderate symptoms

cholinesterase inhibitor, which slows the progression of the disease, provides some improvement in behavioral symptoms

50

what medications are used to address behavioral symptoms in alz

-antidepressants, anti anx, antipsychotics

51

What are the goals of dental hygiene care in an alz pt

-preserve oral health and function
-provide comfort
prevent disease

52

what is the care plan in a patient with alz

-directed at stage of disease
-comprehenisive care in anticipation of future decline on Oral health

53

What are tissue changes in the lips seen?

-dry, purse-string opening results from dehydration and loss of elasticity in the tissues

54

what is angular cheilitis

-caused by candidiasis and vitamin B deficiency
-skin fold fissuring at angles of mouth

55

what changes can we see in the oral mucosa

-atrophic- tissue thinner, less vascular
-hyperkeratosis- white patchy areas from irritation of broken teeth ect
-capillary fragility- facial bruises and petichiae

56

What is atrophic glossitis in changes of the tongue?

-burning tongue
-smooth, shiny, bald, atrophied papillae
-related to anemia from a deficiency in iron

57

what are the changes in taste sensations of the elderly

-renewal of tastebuds is slower
-perception for salt declines
-perception of sweet and sour doesnt decline
-

58

what is the appearance and significance of sublingual varicosities?

-deep red, bluish, nodular
-do not have a direct relation to systemic conditions

59

What is xerostomia in the elderly

-can be present but not a consequence of age
-medication caused
-autoimmune and radiation therapy caused

60

what is the most common infection of the oral mucosal tissues

oral candidiasis

61

what are the two forms of oral candidiasis

angular chelitis, denture stomatitis

62

What is candidiasis assoicated with

-use of antibioitcs
-head and neck radiation therapy
-chemo
-steriods, immunosupressive drugs

63

patients with xerostomia have an increased incidence of what

candidiasis

64

what is the color of elderly peoples teeth

-darkening or yellowing from changes in dentin
-long use of tobacco or tea
-intrinsic stains from restorations

65

what happens to the dental pulp when someone is older

-pulpal changes develop as a reaction to wear, caries, resoration, bruxism

66

what changes of the pulp may be observed

-narrowing of pulp chambers and canals
-deposition of calcified masses
-number of blood vessels decline

67

what is the prevalence of root cares in older adults

-more than any other age group, risk factors not age is reponsible

68

what are risk factors for root caries

-exposed root surfaces
-biofilm retention due to inadequate OH
-xerostomia and meds
-high carb diet

69

what is the effect of fluoride on root caries

fewer leisons in those who have lived a long time in a fluoridated communithy

70

What are changes in the bone of the periodontium

-osteoporosis
depressed vascularity, reduced healing of bone

71

what are changes in the cementum of the periodontium

increased thickness has been demonstrated

72

what are changes in the gingiva of the periodontium

gingival changes traced to effects of infection or anatomic factors

73

what are risk factors for changes of tissues of the periodontium

-same as young adults but may be modified by medications and chronic diseases

74

What do periodontal tissues reflect

the health and disease of the patient over the years

75

we need to review each medication of the patients to determine

-potential side effects
-possible drug interactions
-certain medications may require bathroom break

76

what requires antibiotic premedication

-prosthetic heart valve
-uncontrolled diabetes, those with increased susceptibility to infection

77

why is the intra/extra exam so important for the elderly

because oral cancer occurs with increasing frequency with advancing years

78

what are factors contributing to accumulation of biofilm

-gingival recession with wide embrasures
-exposed cementum with areas of abrasion or caries
-decreased saliva production reduces cleansing and lubricating effects

79

what conditions can contribute to the lack of biofilm removal

arthritis, parkinsons

80

what symptoms are related to vitamin B deficiencies

-angular chelitis, burning tongue, atrophic glossitis,

81

what factors contribute to dietary and nutritional deficiencies

limited budget, not eating regular meals, lack of intrest in shopping, taste lowered, cant chew, difficulty swallowing, alcoholism

82

what 3 vitamins so the elderly have an increased need for

vit D, calcium, folate