Module 7 Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 7 Exam 2 Deck (73):
1

When are the organs of a fetus formed

during the first trimester,

2

when does the fetus move and swallow

by 12 weeks

3

How long is normal pregnancy

40 weeks

4

what is considered premature

before 37 weeks

5

when do the tooth buds develop

between 5 and 6 weeks

6

when does mineralization of tooth buds start

between 4 and 5 months

7

when do the lips form of a fetus

4-7 week

8

when does the palate form

between 8 to 12 th week

9

when is cleft lip apparent by

the 8th week

10

when is cleft palate apparent by

12th week

11

When are the organs completely formed

in the second and third trimesters

12

What are 4 things that can harm a fetus

infections, medications/drug use, drugs of abuse, herbal dietary supplements

13

what conditions all have serious effects on teh fetus

rubella, rubeola, varicella, herpes, viruses, hepatitis b, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea

14

what is a significant risk factor for preterm delivery with low birth weight

severe periodontitis

15

Should any drugs or medications be used during pregnancy

no

16

what kind of effects can drugs have on the fetus

teratogenic

17

what is the effect of tetracycline on the fetus

-intrinsic staining of tooth structure
-occurs during mineralization beginning about 4 months gestation

18

what is the effect of therapy for HIV infections on the fetus

-some antiretroviral medications are not withheld because of pregnancy, but sometimes are with held during the first 14 weeks

19

what does alcohol consumed during pregnancy do

fetal alcohol syndrome
low birth rate
spontaneous abortion
mental retardation

20

what does cocaine cause in a fetus or infant

--decrease birth weight
prematurity
fetal growth retardation
microcephaly
teratogenic effects
increased rate of seizures

21

what do narcotics cause in infants and fetuses (including heroin, methadone, methamphetamines)

-decreased birth weight
-withdrawal symptoms
-convulsions
-intrauterine growth retardation
-enters breastmilk

22

what effects does tobacco have on an infant or fetus

-low birth weight, prematurity, miscarriage, still birth, infant mortality
-SIDS
-increased respiratory infections
-deficencies in physical growth

23

Who are herbal supplements regulated by?

no one

24

What herbal remedies have implications for DH treatment?

Echinacea, valerian

25

What is echinacea used for?

upper respiratory infections activates cell mediated immunity

26

what are the negative effects of echinacea

causes allergic reactions, decreased effectiveness of immunosuppressants, imunnosuppression with long term use

27

what is valerian used for?

insomnia and stress

28

what are the negative effects of valerian?

may increase the sedative effect of anesthetics and it may increase anesthetic requirements

29

what kind of gingival inflammatory changes are seen in the oral cavity during pregnancy

an exaggerated response of the tissues to dental biofilm

30

when can a gingival reaction first be seen in pregancy?

by the second month

31

If gingival inflammation in pregnancy is left untreated what happens

inflammation continues as the hormones rise to a max level by the 8th month

32

What does the gingiva react to in pregnancy?

physiologic changes and influenced by increased levels of female sex hormones

33

What is the clinical appearance of gingivitis

inflamed, enlargement, redness, smooth and shiny, bleeding on probing

34

what are predisposing factors for gingivitis?

-local irritation and infection, hormonal changes, increased prevotella intermedia

35

What is an oral pyogenic granuloma?

is a hyperplasia seen most commonly in pregnant women but can occur in non pregnant women and men

36

What is the appearance of a pyogenic granuloma

-isolated, discrete, soft, round enlargement near the gingival margin usually associtaed with the interdental area

37

what does the color of a pyogenic granuloma depend on?

vascularity

38

what are the symptoms of a pyogenic granuloma

-bleeds easily with slight trauma
-painless unless it interferes with occlusion

39

what is the significance of a pyogenic granuloma?

-interference with mastication can contribute to inadequate nutrition
-provides a site for bacterial growth
-results in bleeding and pain
- creates undesirable esthetic effect

40

What is enamel erosion caused by in pregnancy

morning sickness and vomiting

41

What can a patient do to help with the erosion?

-eat small amts of non cariogenic foods throughout the day
-xylitol gum
-sodium bicarb rinse
-gentle toothbrushing, low abrasive toothpaste

42

What trimester is the safest for general dental treatment

2nd

43

SHould you do a consult for dental tx in a pregnant pt?

yes

44

Do we take radiographs on a pregnant pt.

no unless they are absolutely necessary

45

If an x-ray needs to be taken what precautions are taken?

x-ray apron on the front and back with a thyroid collar

46

When should elective dental treatment be completed

in the 2nd or 3rd trimester

47

What is important about doing restorative tx on a pregnant pt

that it is completed with permanent materials, new mothers may not come back if a temp restortation is placed

48

how frequently should a pregnant pt have appointments?

monthly appointments, or appointments 3 times during the 9 months

49

when calc deposits are heavy what should you do

do several short appts

50

what causes supine hypertensive syndrome?

impaired venous return resulting from pressure of the uterus on the inferior vena cava

51

what should you do if blood pressure drops when your pt is in the supine position.

roll them to the left side to relieve pressure off the vena cava

52

What is an alternate position to having your patient lay on their left side

have them elevate their right hip with a pillow or blanket

53

Is the ultrasonic contraindicated for pregnancy

no

54

what kind of instrumentation should be used

careful

55

can nitrous oxide be used on a pregnant patient

yes in moderation, should be only for 30 minutes with oxygen at 50 %

56

what should you do for a patient who has exaggerated reactions to odors and flavors of medicaments and other office materials

determine the obnoxious odors and remove them, ventilation

57

what should you do for a pregnant patient who has an unpleasant taste in their mouth

-nonalcoholic mouth rinse, neural sodium fl2 rinse, tongue cleaning

58

what should you do for a pregnant patient who gags

-recommend a small tb
-turn head down over sink when brushing
-take care in instrumentation and xrays

59

what should you do with a patient who has unusual food cravings?

if they are sweets recomment non cariogenic snack and define the relationship of frequent nibbling and caries

60

What can have serious effects on both the mother and the fetus

severity of existing perio infection or potential for the initiation of attachment loss

61

pregnancy is an ideal time to motivate the patient to stop what

smoking

62

Why should you instruct your pregnant patient on their diet

to prevent caries and mainenance of the supporting structures of the teeth

63

what is vitamin a good for

preventing preterm birth

64

what is calcium, phosphorous for?

tooth mineralization

65

what is iron good for

blood corpuscles

66

what are proteins good for

general tissue construction

67

What factors may contribute to an apparent increase in dental caries during pregnancy

-previous neglect
-diet during pregnancy
- neglect of personal oral care procedures

68

is calcium withdrawn from the mothers teeht during pregnancy?

no, those minerals in the teeth are not available

69

does prenatal fl2 intake by the mother influence the rate of caries in the child

no

70

Can pregnant patients benefit from both professional and self applied fl2

yes

71

What are signs of depression to look for during pregnancy

-depressed mood
fatigue and disturbed sleep
loss of appetite
difficutly making decisions
feelings of worthlessness sucicidal

72

what is the impact on the health of the fetus in a depressed mother

-higher tendencies for preeclampsia
-longer labor
-low birth rate
-preterm delivery

73

what do you do if your pt is depressed

-explain its a chemical imbalance in the brain
-treatable
-refer to Dr.