Flashcards in Module 7 Exam 2 Deck (73):
When are the organs of a fetus formed
during the first trimester,
when does the fetus move and swallow
by 12 weeks
How long is normal pregnancy
what is considered premature
before 37 weeks
when do the tooth buds develop
between 5 and 6 weeks
when does mineralization of tooth buds start
between 4 and 5 months
when do the lips form of a fetus
when does the palate form
between 8 to 12 th week
when is cleft lip apparent by
the 8th week
when is cleft palate apparent by
When are the organs completely formed
in the second and third trimesters
What are 4 things that can harm a fetus
infections, medications/drug use, drugs of abuse, herbal dietary supplements
what conditions all have serious effects on teh fetus
rubella, rubeola, varicella, herpes, viruses, hepatitis b, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea
what is a significant risk factor for preterm delivery with low birth weight
Should any drugs or medications be used during pregnancy
what kind of effects can drugs have on the fetus
what is the effect of tetracycline on the fetus
-intrinsic staining of tooth structure
-occurs during mineralization beginning about 4 months gestation
what is the effect of therapy for HIV infections on the fetus
-some antiretroviral medications are not withheld because of pregnancy, but sometimes are with held during the first 14 weeks
what does alcohol consumed during pregnancy do
fetal alcohol syndrome
low birth rate
what does cocaine cause in a fetus or infant
--decrease birth weight
fetal growth retardation
increased rate of seizures
what do narcotics cause in infants and fetuses (including heroin, methadone, methamphetamines)
-decreased birth weight
-intrauterine growth retardation
what effects does tobacco have on an infant or fetus
-low birth weight, prematurity, miscarriage, still birth, infant mortality
-increased respiratory infections
-deficencies in physical growth
Who are herbal supplements regulated by?
What herbal remedies have implications for DH treatment?
What is echinacea used for?
upper respiratory infections activates cell mediated immunity
what are the negative effects of echinacea
causes allergic reactions, decreased effectiveness of immunosuppressants, imunnosuppression with long term use
what is valerian used for?
insomnia and stress
what are the negative effects of valerian?
may increase the sedative effect of anesthetics and it may increase anesthetic requirements
what kind of gingival inflammatory changes are seen in the oral cavity during pregnancy
an exaggerated response of the tissues to dental biofilm
when can a gingival reaction first be seen in pregancy?
by the second month
If gingival inflammation in pregnancy is left untreated what happens
inflammation continues as the hormones rise to a max level by the 8th month
What does the gingiva react to in pregnancy?
physiologic changes and influenced by increased levels of female sex hormones
What is the clinical appearance of gingivitis
inflamed, enlargement, redness, smooth and shiny, bleeding on probing
what are predisposing factors for gingivitis?
-local irritation and infection, hormonal changes, increased prevotella intermedia
What is an oral pyogenic granuloma?
is a hyperplasia seen most commonly in pregnant women but can occur in non pregnant women and men
What is the appearance of a pyogenic granuloma
-isolated, discrete, soft, round enlargement near the gingival margin usually associtaed with the interdental area
what does the color of a pyogenic granuloma depend on?
what are the symptoms of a pyogenic granuloma
-bleeds easily with slight trauma
-painless unless it interferes with occlusion
what is the significance of a pyogenic granuloma?
-interference with mastication can contribute to inadequate nutrition
-provides a site for bacterial growth
-results in bleeding and pain
- creates undesirable esthetic effect
What is enamel erosion caused by in pregnancy
morning sickness and vomiting
What can a patient do to help with the erosion?
-eat small amts of non cariogenic foods throughout the day
-sodium bicarb rinse
-gentle toothbrushing, low abrasive toothpaste
What trimester is the safest for general dental treatment
SHould you do a consult for dental tx in a pregnant pt?
Do we take radiographs on a pregnant pt.
no unless they are absolutely necessary
If an x-ray needs to be taken what precautions are taken?
x-ray apron on the front and back with a thyroid collar
When should elective dental treatment be completed
in the 2nd or 3rd trimester
What is important about doing restorative tx on a pregnant pt
that it is completed with permanent materials, new mothers may not come back if a temp restortation is placed
how frequently should a pregnant pt have appointments?
monthly appointments, or appointments 3 times during the 9 months
when calc deposits are heavy what should you do
do several short appts
what causes supine hypertensive syndrome?
impaired venous return resulting from pressure of the uterus on the inferior vena cava
what should you do if blood pressure drops when your pt is in the supine position.
roll them to the left side to relieve pressure off the vena cava
What is an alternate position to having your patient lay on their left side
have them elevate their right hip with a pillow or blanket
Is the ultrasonic contraindicated for pregnancy
what kind of instrumentation should be used
can nitrous oxide be used on a pregnant patient
yes in moderation, should be only for 30 minutes with oxygen at 50 %
what should you do for a patient who has exaggerated reactions to odors and flavors of medicaments and other office materials
determine the obnoxious odors and remove them, ventilation
what should you do for a pregnant patient who has an unpleasant taste in their mouth
-nonalcoholic mouth rinse, neural sodium fl2 rinse, tongue cleaning
what should you do for a pregnant patient who gags
-recommend a small tb
-turn head down over sink when brushing
-take care in instrumentation and xrays
what should you do with a patient who has unusual food cravings?
if they are sweets recomment non cariogenic snack and define the relationship of frequent nibbling and caries
What can have serious effects on both the mother and the fetus
severity of existing perio infection or potential for the initiation of attachment loss
pregnancy is an ideal time to motivate the patient to stop what
Why should you instruct your pregnant patient on their diet
to prevent caries and mainenance of the supporting structures of the teeth
what is vitamin a good for
preventing preterm birth
what is calcium, phosphorous for?
what is iron good for
what are proteins good for
general tissue construction
What factors may contribute to an apparent increase in dental caries during pregnancy
-diet during pregnancy
- neglect of personal oral care procedures
is calcium withdrawn from the mothers teeht during pregnancy?
no, those minerals in the teeth are not available
does prenatal fl2 intake by the mother influence the rate of caries in the child
Can pregnant patients benefit from both professional and self applied fl2
What are signs of depression to look for during pregnancy
fatigue and disturbed sleep
loss of appetite
difficutly making decisions
feelings of worthlessness sucicidal
what is the impact on the health of the fetus in a depressed mother
-higher tendencies for preeclampsia
-low birth rate