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Flashcards in Module 6 Deck (94):
1

What is necessary for optimum oral health at all ages?

fluoride

2

By what 2 means is fluoride made available at the tooth surface?

systemically and topically

3

how is the tooth surface exposed to fluoride systemically?

by way of the circulation to developing teeth

4

what is preeruptive exposure?

systemic exposure

5

how is the tooth surface exposed to fluoride topically?

directly to the exposed surfaces of erupted teeth

6

what is the posteruptive exposure?

Topical exposure

7

What can be swallowed during toothe development to provide both preeruptive exposure and posteruptive exposure to teeth currently erupted?

topically applied fluoride

8

Epidemiologic evidence shows maximum caries inhibiting effect what there is what?

-systemic exposure before tooth eruption
-frequent topical exposure throughout life

9

What is fluoride and how do we get it?

systemic nutrient taken into the body by way of water, dietary supplements, foods

10

How is fluoride adsorbed?

rapidly, by passive diffusionin the stomach as hydrogen fluoride

11

What does the rate of adsorbtion of fluoride depend on?

the solubility of the fluoride compound and its gastric acidity

12

How long does it take fluoride to be adsorbed?

60 minutes

13

What happens to the fluoride that isnt adsorbed in the stomach?

it will be adsorbed by the small intestine

14

When is there less adsorbtion of fluoride?

when it is taken with mik and other food

15

WHat carries the fluoride in the blood stream?

plasma

16

What does the plasma carry the fluoride for?

distribution and elimination throughout the body

17

When are maximum blood levels of fluoride reached in the body?

within 30 minutes of intake

18

What is fluoride distributed by and where to?

plasma, all tissues and organs

19

What does fluoride have a strong affinity for?

calcified tissues

20

Where are concentrations of fluorides the highest?

at the surfaces next to the tisse fulid supplying the fluoride

21

fluoride is stored as an integral part of what

the crystal lattice of teeth and bones

22

When can fully matured fluoride depositied during development be altered?

by cavitated dental caries, erosion, or mechanical abrasion

23

Where is most fluoride excreted?

kidneys

24

where is the smaller amount of fluoride excreted?

sweat of glands and in the feces

25

Is there transfer of fluoride from plasma to breast milk?

it is very limited

26

When and where is fluoride depositied during formation of the enamel

it starts at the DEJ, after the enamel matrix is laid down by the ameloblasts

27

Fluoride is incorporated directly in the the what?

hydroxyapetite crystalline structure

28

What does preeruptive fluoride result in?

shallower occlusal grooves

29

When do first permanent molars begin to mineralize?

at birth

30

how is fluoride available to developing teeth?

by way of the blood plasma to the tissues surrounding tooth buds

31

What is dental fluorosis?

form of hypomineralization that results from systeminc ingestion of an excess amount of fluoride during tooth development

32

When is the enamel highly receptive to free fl2 ions?

mineralization

33

Is dental fluorosis a result of a cumulative or threshold amount of fl2

cumulative

34

What does the excess fluoride cause the ameloblasts do?

inhibits the ameloblasts, results in discontinuty of crystal growth

35

after mineralization is complete and before eruption what coninues in the surface of the enamel

fluoride deposition

36

where is fluoride taken up in the preeruptive/maturation stage?

it is taken up from the nutrient tissue fluids surrounding the tooth crown

37

during what period is more fluoride aquired by the outer surface of enamel than the underlying layers of enamel druing mineralization

preeruptive: maturation stage

38

children who are exposed to fluoride for ____________ before eruption have the greatest amt of fl2 during the preeruptive stage

first 2 years

39

What is the posteruptive stage?

after eruption and throughout the lifespan of the teeth

40

What is the outermost surface of the enamel most dependent on?

topical fluoride

41

What are examples of topical fl2?

water, dentifrices, mouth rinse

42

Fl2 on the outermost surface of the enamel available for

inhibiting demineralizaton and enhancing remineralization

43

What can the continuous presence of fluoride ihibit?

initiation and and progression of dental caries

44

When is uptake most rapid on the enamel surfacw

during the first years after eruption

45

What does the uptake of fluoride depend on?

the level of fl2 in the oral environment

46

what adsorbes fluoride in greater quantities?

hypomineralized enamel

47

What has a greater concentration of fl2 than sound enamel?

demineralized enamel that has been remineralized

48

The fluoride in exposed dentin is _______ than in enamel

greater

49

Where is the higher concentration of fluoride in dentin?

pulpal or inner surface wher e exhange takes place

50

newly formed dentin adsorbs fluoride_____

rapidly

51

The level of fluoride in cementum is

________

52

the level of fluoride in cementum _______ with age

increases

53

When is fluoride available to cementum?

when the root surface is exposed

54

What are resivors for fluoride?

biofilm and saliva

55

How does fluoride ehance remineralizatoin?

adsorbing to the crystal surface and attrating calcium and phosphate ions

56

how much fluoride is in dental biofilm?

5 to 50 ppm

57

what does fluoride interfere with?

growth and metabolism of bacteria

58

what is enolase?

an enzyme neded by bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates

59

how does fluoride inhibit bacterial activity?

inhibits enolase

60

What is fluoridation?

adjustment of the natural fl2 ion content of water supply to the optiumum physiologic concentration that will maximize caries prevention and limit enamel fluorosis

61

What is the most efficent means of effective reliable and inexpensive means for improving and maintaining oral health

fluoridation

62

What has fluoridation been named as?

one of the 10 most significant pubilc health measures of the 20th century

63

What is the annual const per person per year of fluoridation?

$.54-3.44

64

What did Dr. frederick S. Mckay do?

did studies to find the cause of brown stains that he observed in the people of colorado springs

65

what is the other name for the brown stain?

mottled enamel and now dental fluorosis

66

What did dr. HV Churchill do??

pinpointed fluorin as the spoecivic element Dr. Mckay had been observing clinically

67

What did Dr. H Trendly Dean do?

concluded that the level of fluoride in the water optimum for dental caries prevention averages 1ppm in moderate climiates and fluorosis is over 2ppm

68

what is associated with over 2ppm of fl2 in the water?

dental fluorosis

69

When were the first communities fluoridated?

1945

70

What was the first city to be fluoridated?

Grand Rapid Michigan

71

What city where they had natrual fluoide was used to compare the benefits of natural with citys with fluoridation

Aurora, Illinois

72

What are some of the frist fluoridated cities?

grand rapids, michigan
newburgh, new york
brantford, ontario
evanston, illinois

73

What were some of the control cities?

Muskegon, Michigan
Kingston, NY
Sarnia, Ontario
Oak Park, Illinois

74

What is the optiumum concentration of Fl2 in warmer climates?

.7ppm

75

what is the optimum fl2 concentration in colder climates?

1.2 ppm

76

WHat is the number that is used for all communities?

.7 ppm

77

What are the sources of fl2?

naturally occuring, and from mining

78

what are examples of fl2

fluorspar, cryolite, apetite

79

What are the criteria for acceptance of a fluoride compound for fluoridation?

solubility, inexpensive, readily available

80

What compounds are used in fluoridation

Dry- sodium fluoride, sodium silicon fluoride
Liquid- hydrofluoricsilicic acid

81

What do teeth exposed to an optiumum or slighly higher level of fluoride appear as?

white, shining, opaque and without blemishes

82

When the fl2 level is slightly more than optiumum exposed developing teeth may exhibit ____

mile enamel fluorosis seen as white areas in bands or flecks

83

The majority of fluorosis that we see is _____

mild

84

the reduction in caries due to water fluoridation alone among adults is____

27%

85

what teeth recieve most protection from fluoride?

anterior maxillary teeth because it is contacted by drinking water

86

Is root caries prevalence less in lifelong residence of a fluoridated community?

Yes, by 50%

87

How much does fluoridation from birth reduce caries by?

40% in primary teeth

88

Tooth loss due to dental caries is much______ in both primary and permanent teeth without fluoride

greater

89

What are the good effects of fluoride on perio health?

- improved bone density, no carious leisons to harbor bacteria for perio, fewer teeth are lost to perio

90

What is partial defluoridation?

communites have excess fluoride in their water

91

what do the teeth look like in partial defluoridation?

very hard and brittle

92

What is school fluoridation?

benefits children in communities that cant have community fluoridation and they add fluoride to the schools water system

93

What is discontinued fluoridation?

fl2 is removed from a community water supply that had dental caries conrol

94

Where did they remove fl2 because of anti-fluoridationists and the community voted it back in

antigo wisconsin in 1966 was reinstated