Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (84):
what are macronutrients?
They are nutrients needed in larger amounts in the diet
What nutrients do macro nutrients include?
carbs, protein and fat
What is a vegan?
a diet consisting of only plant foods
What is a fruitarian?
a diet of fruit, nuts, honey and veg. oil
What is a lacto-vegetarian?
vegan based diet with the inclusion of dairy products
What is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
vegan based diet with the inclusion of dairy products and eggs
What are AIs?
Recommended nutrient intake utilized when and EAR cant be established
What are DRIs?
diet reference intakes
What do DRIs concentrate on?
maintaining a health state for the healthy general population to avoid over eating and prevent chronic disease
What are EARs?
estimated average requirements
What does the EAR estimate?
the nutrient requirements of he average individual?
What are RDAs?
recommended dietary allowances
What do RDAs help achieve?
amts of nutrients recommended to be consumed daily by healthy people to achieve adequate nutrient intake
What are ULs?
tolerable upper intake levels
Max intake that is unlikely to creaste risk of adverse effect
What vitamins are relevant to skin and mucous membranes?
Vitamins A, B complex and ascorbic acid
What minerals are relevant to skin and mucous membrane?
zinc and iron
Does malnutrition contribute to progression of perio. disease?
T/F nutritional deficiencies do not cause periodontal disease
Severe deficiencies are rare in developed countries T/F
RDA's are not essential to the health of periodontal tissue
False, they are essential (total body health)
Without local factors including pathogens in biofilm, retentive factors, and lack of home care perio cannot occur. T/F
Does the physical character of a persons diet contribute to perio disease?
Malnutrition suppresses the immune system and impairs host reaction to infections
Do nutrients contribute to healing and tissue repair?
What elements are strongly associated with wound healing?
Vitamin B complex, Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and dietary calcium
What is the vitamin B complex?
all water soluble vitamins excluding vitamin C
List all of the vitamins in the vitamin B complex:
Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, cobalamin, biotin, folic acid, pantothenic acid
What is Vitamin C needed for?
Where is 99% of calcium in the body?
In the bones and teeth
Where is the 1% of calcium in the body?
in the body tissues and fluids
What is necessary for continuous exchange of calcium between blood, bones, and cells?
_____intake of calcium can be a risk factor for perio disease
When smokers have low dietary vitamin c intake there periodontal disease is more severe T/F
Obesity cannot predict perio disease
False it is a significant predictor
What kind of foods should be recommended for patients with periodontal conditions?
firm fibrous foods may stimulate tissues and improve circulation and increase salivary flow
What are the relevant minerals for tooth structure and integrity?
calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, fluoride
What are the relevant vitamins for tooth structure and integrity?
________ is the essential mineral for dental caries prevention
Caries is a result of___________ not nutrient deficiency
excess cariogenic foods
What are some purposes of a dietary assessment?
- ID patients who may be at nutritional and oral health risk
-patients to study dietary habits
-picture of food in patients diet
-record frequency and consumption of cariogenic foods
What do you do to get ready for a dietary assessment?
Patient history and clinical evaluation
What kinds of forms are used for a dietary assessment?
Food diary (intake over 24 hours)
Dietary analysis recording form (3-7 Days)
encourage writing down asap, use of typical days, write down details, record supplements
What do you do when you receive the food diary?
Obtain supplemental data (ask questions if needed)
Review- look for omissions, look at habits
What is the critical pH of biofilm?
What is the critical pH for root surfaces?
What is the critical level for demineralization of enamel?
When acid is left undisturbed how long does it take to be cleared from the mouth?
40 min to 2 hours
How do you immediately evaluate the dietary analysis?
verbal and nonverbal intrest, comprehension and demonstration of cooperation by patient
Three month follow up for dietary analysis
-keep a new food diary
Six month follow up for dietary analysis
-perform clinical exam
-check biofilm score
What is anorexia nervosa?
refusal of an individual to maintain body weight over the minimal normal weight for age and height
What does anorexia involve?
self imposed starvation and obsessive desire to be thin
What are the 2 types of anorexia nervosa
restricing type, binge-eating/purging type
What are the characteristics of a restrictive type anorexia nervosa?
does not regularly engage in binge eating or purging behavior
What are the characteristics of binge-eating/purging type of anorexia nervosa?
regularly engages in binge eating or purging behavior
There is an increased incidence of what in an individual with anorexia nervosa?
major depression or a family history of major depression or biopolar disorder
What are some physical characteristics of an individual with anorexia nervosa?
-severe emaciation "waif like" appearance
-refusal to eat but preoccupied with food
-abuse of diuretics
-dry, flaky skin, brittle fingernails
What are the medical complications of anorexia nervosa?
What kind of therapies are needed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa
medical and psychiatric
Are pharmacotheraputic agents usually involved with anorexia nervosa?
Personal factors to look for in an individual with anorexia nervosa
-excessive exercise, preoccupied with food and weightloss
-depression (crying spells, sleep disturbances
-high achiever, isolated socially
What are the oral implications of anorexia nervosa?
What is bulimia nervosa?
recurrent episodes of uncontrollable bine eating
What are the 2 types of bulimia nervosa?
Purging and non purging
What is the purging type of bulimia nervosa?
regularly engages in self induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas
What is the non purging type of bulimia nervosa characterize bye?
inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as fasting or excessive exercise
What is bulimarexia?
has bulimic-type anorexia and shows symptoms of both anorexia and bulimia
An individual with bulimia nervosa has a normal or slightly overweight body weight. T/F
Drug and or alcohol abuse by the patient or in the family history is not common in bulimia nervosa
False, it is common
What medical complications arise in bulimia nervosa?
-dehydration, electorlye imbalance, protein malnutrition, cardiac arrhythmia
-Amenorrhea (with history of anorexia)
-drug and alcohol abuse
What treatment is needed for someone with bulimia nervosa?
cognitive behavioral therapy, modify dysfunctional beliefs, antidepressants
What are personal factors to watch for with someone with bulimia nervosa?
socially extroverted, low self-esteem guilt feeling for eating habits
What are some oral findings in an individual with B. N. ?
Periomyolysis, Caries, decrease in saliva, xerostomia, hypersensistive teeth, trauma, partoid gland enlargement, bruxism, impaired taste
What is perimylolysis?
chemical erosion of the tooth surfaces by acid from regurgitation of stomach contents, after vomiting acid is retained by tongue papillae and provides longer contact with max teeth
What kind of trauma is seen in someone with B. N.?
-soft palate trauma from fingers or objects
-pharyngeal trauma from regurgitation
-Callous formation or scars on fingers or knuckles for self induced vomiting
What should you do to intervene with a patient suspected of having B.N?
-reduce cariogenic foods
-improve personal oral care
- do not brush after vomiting
-address hypersensitive teeth
Why should you not brush after vomiting?
Demineralization starts immediately on contact with acid, brushing may abrade demineralized areas