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Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (84):
1

what are macronutrients?

They are nutrients needed in larger amounts in the diet

2

What nutrients do macro nutrients include?

carbs, protein and fat

3

What is a vegan?

a diet consisting of only plant foods

4

What is a fruitarian?

a diet of fruit, nuts, honey and veg. oil

5

What is a lacto-vegetarian?

vegan based diet with the inclusion of dairy products

6

What is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian?

vegan based diet with the inclusion of dairy products and eggs

7

What are AIs?

adequate intakes

Recommended nutrient intake utilized when and EAR cant be established

8

What are DRIs?

diet reference intakes

9

What do DRIs concentrate on?

maintaining a health state for the healthy general population to avoid over eating and prevent chronic disease

10

What are EARs?

estimated average requirements

11

What does the EAR estimate?

the nutrient requirements of he average individual?

12

What are RDAs?

recommended dietary allowances

13

What do RDAs help achieve?

amts of nutrients recommended to be consumed daily by healthy people to achieve adequate nutrient intake

14

What are ULs?

tolerable upper intake levels
Max intake that is unlikely to creaste risk of adverse effect

15

What vitamins are relevant to skin and mucous membranes?

Vitamins A, B complex and ascorbic acid

16

What minerals are relevant to skin and mucous membrane?

zinc and iron

17

Does malnutrition contribute to progression of perio. disease?

Yes

18

T/F nutritional deficiencies do not cause periodontal disease

True

19

Severe deficiencies are rare in developed countries T/F

True

20

RDA's are not essential to the health of periodontal tissue

False, they are essential (total body health)

21

Without local factors including pathogens in biofilm, retentive factors, and lack of home care perio cannot occur. T/F

True

22

Does the physical character of a persons diet contribute to perio disease?

Yes

23

Malnutrition suppresses the immune system and impairs host reaction to infections

True

24

Do nutrients contribute to healing and tissue repair?

Yes

25

What elements are strongly associated with wound healing?

Vitamin B complex, Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and dietary calcium

26

What is the vitamin B complex?

all water soluble vitamins excluding vitamin C

27

List all of the vitamins in the vitamin B complex:

Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, cobalamin, biotin, folic acid, pantothenic acid

28

Thiamin

vitamin B1

29

Riboflavin

Vitamin B2

30

Niacin

Vitamin B3

31

pyridoxin

vitamin B6

32

cobalamin

vitamin B12

33

What is Vitamin C needed for?

collagen formation
intercellular material
healing tissues

34

Where is 99% of calcium in the body?

In the bones and teeth

35

Where is the 1% of calcium in the body?

in the body tissues and fluids

36

What is necessary for continuous exchange of calcium between blood, bones, and cells?

Vitamin D

37

_____intake of calcium can be a risk factor for perio disease

low

38

When smokers have low dietary vitamin c intake there periodontal disease is more severe T/F

True

39

Obesity cannot predict perio disease

False it is a significant predictor

40

What kind of foods should be recommended for patients with periodontal conditions?

firm fibrous foods may stimulate tissues and improve circulation and increase salivary flow

41

What are the relevant minerals for tooth structure and integrity?

calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, fluoride

42

What are the relevant vitamins for tooth structure and integrity?

Vitamin A

43

________ is the essential mineral for dental caries prevention

fluoride

44

Caries is a result of___________ not nutrient deficiency

excess cariogenic foods

45

What are some purposes of a dietary assessment?

- ID patients who may be at nutritional and oral health risk
-patients to study dietary habits
-picture of food in patients diet
-record frequency and consumption of cariogenic foods

46

What do you do to get ready for a dietary assessment?

Patient history and clinical evaluation

47

What kinds of forms are used for a dietary assessment?

Food diary (intake over 24 hours)
Dietary analysis recording form (3-7 Days)

48

Food diary

encourage writing down asap, use of typical days, write down details, record supplements

49

What do you do when you receive the food diary?

Obtain supplemental data (ask questions if needed)
Review- look for omissions, look at habits

50

What is the critical pH of biofilm?

5.2-5.5

51

What is the critical pH for root surfaces?

6.0-6.7

52

What is the critical level for demineralization of enamel?

5.5

53

When acid is left undisturbed how long does it take to be cleared from the mouth?

40 min to 2 hours

54

How do you immediately evaluate the dietary analysis?

verbal and nonverbal intrest, comprehension and demonstration of cooperation by patient

55

Three month follow up for dietary analysis

-review OHI
-keep a new food diary
-document progress

56

Six month follow up for dietary analysis

-perform clinical exam
-check biofilm score
-compare

57

What is anorexia nervosa?

refusal of an individual to maintain body weight over the minimal normal weight for age and height

58

What does anorexia involve?

self imposed starvation and obsessive desire to be thin

59

What are the 2 types of anorexia nervosa

restricing type, binge-eating/purging type

60

What are the characteristics of a restrictive type anorexia nervosa?

does not regularly engage in binge eating or purging behavior

61

What are the characteristics of binge-eating/purging type of anorexia nervosa?

regularly engages in binge eating or purging behavior

62

There is an increased incidence of what in an individual with anorexia nervosa?

major depression or a family history of major depression or biopolar disorder

63

What are some physical characteristics of an individual with anorexia nervosa?

-severe emaciation "waif like" appearance
-refusal to eat but preoccupied with food
-hyperactivity
-abuse of diuretics
-dry, flaky skin, brittle fingernails
-lanugo

64

What are the medical complications of anorexia nervosa?

- malnutrition
-dehydration
-metabolic changes
-amenorrhea

65

What kind of therapies are needed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa

medical and psychiatric

66

Are pharmacotheraputic agents usually involved with anorexia nervosa?

No

67

Personal factors to look for in an individual with anorexia nervosa

-excessive exercise, preoccupied with food and weightloss
-depression (crying spells, sleep disturbances
-high achiever, isolated socially

68

What are the oral implications of anorexia nervosa?

xerostomia, perimylolysis

69

What is bulimia nervosa?

recurrent episodes of uncontrollable bine eating

70

What are the 2 types of bulimia nervosa?

Purging and non purging

71

What is the purging type of bulimia nervosa?

regularly engages in self induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas

72

What is the non purging type of bulimia nervosa characterize bye?

inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as fasting or excessive exercise

73

What is bulimarexia?

has bulimic-type anorexia and shows symptoms of both anorexia and bulimia

74

An individual with bulimia nervosa has a normal or slightly overweight body weight. T/F

True

75

Drug and or alcohol abuse by the patient or in the family history is not common in bulimia nervosa

False, it is common

76

What medical complications arise in bulimia nervosa?

-dehydration, electorlye imbalance, protein malnutrition, cardiac arrhythmia
-Amenorrhea (with history of anorexia)
-GI disturbances
-drug and alcohol abuse

77

What treatment is needed for someone with bulimia nervosa?

cognitive behavioral therapy, modify dysfunctional beliefs, antidepressants

78

What are personal factors to watch for with someone with bulimia nervosa?

socially extroverted, low self-esteem guilt feeling for eating habits

79

What are some oral findings in an individual with B. N. ?

Periomyolysis, Caries, decrease in saliva, xerostomia, hypersensistive teeth, trauma, partoid gland enlargement, bruxism, impaired taste

80

What is perimylolysis?

chemical erosion of the tooth surfaces by acid from regurgitation of stomach contents, after vomiting acid is retained by tongue papillae and provides longer contact with max teeth

81

What kind of trauma is seen in someone with B. N.?

-soft palate trauma from fingers or objects
-pharyngeal trauma from regurgitation
-Callous formation or scars on fingers or knuckles for self induced vomiting

82

What should you do to intervene with a patient suspected of having B.N?

-reduce cariogenic foods
-improve personal oral care
- do not brush after vomiting
-fluoride therapy
-address xerostomia
-address hypersensitive teeth

83

Why should you not brush after vomiting?

Demineralization starts immediately on contact with acid, brushing may abrade demineralized areas

84

What can a patient do to help remineralization after vomiting?

-sodium bicarbonate or mangesium hydroxide solution rinse
-sodium fluoride rinse