Module 15 Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 15 Exam 3 Deck (73):
1

what is orthopnea

ability to breathe easily only in an upright position

2

What are the locations of upper respiratory tract diseases

nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx

3

what are the locations of lower respiratory tract diseases

diseases of the trachea, lungs

4

what is an example of an acute upper respiratory disease? lower?

-rhinitis, sinutitis, pharyngitis, influenza
-acute bronchitis, pneumonia

5

what is an example of a chronic upper respiratory disease? lower?

-allergic rhinitis
-TB, asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis

6

what are the modes of transmission of upper respiratory diseases

-inhalation of airborne droplets
-indirectly contaminated hands or articles freshly soiled with discharge

7

what is acute bronchitis

an acute respiratory infection that involves large airways (trachea, bronchi)

8

what is the primary symptom of acute bronchitis

cough with or without phlegm, may last up to 3 weeks

9

what is pneumonia

an infections and subsequent inflammation of the lungs, caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, or parasites (respiratory tract of healthy person is able to defend)

10

what is the etiology of pneumonia

viral and bacterial and fungal

11

what is the most common cause of pneumonia

fungal
pneumocystits pneumonia (PCP)
pneumocystitis jirovecii

12

what is a community aquired pneumonia

-occurs in any individual in the community, person to person tranmission

13

what is a healthcare associated pneumonia (nosocomial)

-occurs 48-72 hrs after admission to healthcare facility
-main cause of death in hosp pts
-bacteria in perio pockets may serve as a resivoir for lung infection

14

what is nursing home acquired pneumonia caused by

- due to dysphagia from a decrease in saliva, cough reflex or swallowing disorders, aspiration of saliva

15

what is a hospital aquired pneumonia caused by

ventilator associated: no ability to clear oral secretions by swallowing of coughing
non ventilator- biofilm forms of endotrach tubes

16

what is medical management of pneumonia

bacteria: antibiotic
virus: bed rest and fluids
fungal: sulfa drugs

17

what are the symptoms and signs of viral pneumonia

-mild symptoms
-cough, sputum
-mild fever
-dyspnea

18

what are the signs and symptoms of bacterial pneumonia

-sudden onset
-cough, purulent
-high fever
-dyspnea
-pleuritic chest pain

19

what is tuberculosis

chronic infectious and communicable disease with world wide public health significance as a cause of disability and death

20

what groups have a high risk of contracting TB

-close contact w/ people w/TB
-reside and work in institutional settings
-from countries that have a high TB incidence
-provide medical or dental care for any of the high risk groups

21

what is the etiology of TB

mycobacterium tuberculosis

22

what is the transmission of TB

-travel in airborne droplet nucei in saliva or mucus
-inhalation

23

where does the local TB infection begin

lung alveoli

24

where does the TB survive best

high oxygen tension, such as the lungs

25

what are the 2 tests to determine exposure to TB

-Tuberculin skin test (mantoux test, PPD)
-interferon gamma release assay
blood test

26

When a test to determine TB exposure are positive what is done

-chest xray
-physical exam
-preliminary diagnosis, sputum exam
-definitive diagnosis: when seen in sputum, is is not confirmed but suspected, it must be grown in lab to confirm

27

what are oral manifestations of TB

mucosal leison, painful deep, irregular ulcer on dorsum of tongue, leisons can also occur on palate, lips, buccal mucosa, gingiva, glandular swellings

28

what things do we do to implement infection control measures in dental hygiene care with TB

-update med history
-recognize signs, symptoms of tb
-follow CDC guidelines
-update written protocol

29

do you treat a pt with active tb

no

30

what do you do as far at tx in a patient with a history of tb

-use caution, discuss signs and symptoms
-consult with physician, to confirm
-tx is permitted when pt is free of clinically active disease

31

what is asthma

-chronic respiratory disease consisting of recurrent episodes of dyspnea, coughing, wheezing leading to bronchial inflammation and muscle constriction

32

what is extrinsic (allergic or atopic) asthma

-triggers outside of body
-exaggerated response from inhalation of allergen
-activation of airway epthelial mast cells

33

what is the most commmon type of asthma

extrinsic

34

what is intrinsic (non allergic) asthma

-triggers from within the body
-triggers:emotional stress, GERD
-usually seen in adults

35

What is drug or food induced (non allergenic, non atopic*

-aspirin
-NSAIDS
-beta blockers
-food (nuts, shellfish, milk, strawberries)
-tartrazine(yellow food dyes0
-metabisulfide preservative in food and drugs

36

what is exercise induced asthma

-vigorous physical activity
-thermal changes during inhalation of cold are may provoke irritation and airway hyperactivity

37

what is infection induced asthma

-lung infectoins may provoke symptoms

38

What is one type of IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction

atopic asthma

39

what is IgE

-one of 5 types of antibodies
-primary defense against allergens, breaks them down and removes from body

40

people with asthma are beleived to hyperreact and produce more what

IgE antibodies, results are symptoms of asthma

41

What are the steps in an IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction

1-inital exposure to allergen IgE produced and binds to mast cells
2-on subsequent exposures antigen binds to mast cells
3-mast cells release asthma mediators
4-asthma mediators cause bronchoconstricion, vasodilation, mucus producton

42

what is local anaphylaxis

-allergen binds to mast cell in nasal cavitiy resuling in nasal rhinitis
-allergen binds to mast cell in bronchiole reusling in asthma

43

what is systemic anaphylaxisi

-allgergen binds to mast cells throughout the body resuling in anaphylaxis

44

what are signs and symptoms of an asthma attack

-chest tighness
-ineffectiveness of brochodilator
-wheezing, cough
-dilated pupils
-flushed
-confusion
-tachypnea
-tachycardia

45

how to prepare for possible emergency care in a asthma attack

-signs and symptoms
-stop tx
-rule out obstruction
-assist with inhaler
-administer 02
-monitor vital signs

46

what are drugs to avoid that are asthma attack triggers or decrease respiratory function

aspirin, sulfite, NSAIDS
narcotics barbituates

47

what are the two main asthma medication types

-long term control
-quick releif meds

48

what are oral manifestations of beta 2 agonist inhalers?

-decrased salivary flow and biofilm pH
-causes and increase in GERD

49

What should you do before tx with patient who has asthma

-remined them to bring inhaler, assess risk level, have 02 available, stress free environment

50

what should you do during tx with a pt with asthma

-prevent triggering hypersensitive airway with isolation
-use local without sulfites
-fl2 tx

51

what is COPD

pulmonary disorders that obstruct airflow

52

what are the 2 most common diseases of COPD

chronic bronchitis and emphysema

53

what is the primary etiology of COPD

tobacco smoke with occupational and environmental pollutants as contributing factors

54

What is the etiology of chronic bronchitis

- excessive respiratory tract mucus production sufficient to cause a cough with expectoration for at least 3 months o the year for 2 or more years

55

in chronic bronchitis difficulty breathing is present on

inspiration and expiration

56

what are the signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis

-chronic cough
-copious sputum
-chest radiograph abnormalities
-sedentary , overweight, cyanotic, edematous

57

which disease is termed a blue bloater

chronic bronchitis

58

what disease is termed a pink puffer

emphysema

59

what is the etiology of emphysema

-distention of the air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles dues to destruction of alveolar walls

60

pts with ephysema have problems with breathing on

expiration

61

what are signs and symptoms of emphysema

-difficulty breathing on exertion
-barrel chest
-nonproductive cough
-weight loss
-chest x-ray abnormalities

62

what is the medical managment of COPD

no cure, decrease exacerbations (stop smoking, eliminate pollutants, adequate nutrition, drink water, exercise)

63

what are the 5 stages of COPD

at risk, mild, moderate, severe, very severe

64

what are oral manifestations of COPD

-similar to pts with asthma

65

What should we do before tx of a COPD patient

-precautions when cardiovascular problems present
-assess severity of COPD
-no N20
-tx preformed only on those with stable breathing
-ID patients who may experience exacerbation of symptoms under stress
-montiory b.p
-appt length may need to be modified

66

In COPD what should you do during tx

-antimicrobial preprocedural r inse
-avoid use of power driven scalers
-local without epi

67

what should you do in education of COPD patients

-stop smoking
-promote OH care
-discuss link between COPD and perio
-teach and promote oral self care exam
-frequent appts

68

what is cystic fibrosis

-autosomal recessive gene disorder, progressive, ultimately fatal, involves pancreas liver, lung

69

what is affected in cystic fibrosis

gene disorder, affects salt and water in epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and exocrine glands and results in thickened secretions

70

what happens to the respiratory tract in cystic fibrosis

- airways are always filled with phlegm, similar to pus, leading to chronic sinusitis, opportunisitc lung infection

71

what happens to the pancreas and intestinal tract in cystic fibrosis

-thick mucus clogs pancreatic ducts, prevent release of enzymes, food isnt properly digested or absorbed

72

what is the medical management of cystic fybrosis patients

-antibiotics including inhalation solution
-bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory agents
-chest physiotherapy

73

what is dental hygiene care of cystic fibrosis patients

-oral manifestations: gingivitis associated with dry mouth,
facilitate breathing: adapt chair, no rubber dam